Companion to the Missal A-Ordinary

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The following books provide commentary and/or analysis and/or translation of the Sarum Ordinary:

William Maskell. The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England (London: William Pickering, 1846).

Charles Walker, The Liturgy of the church of Sarum (London, J. T. Hayes, 1866).

Morse, Herbert George. Notes on Ceremonial from the Antient English Office Books. London: Pickering and Chatto, 1888.

Hurlbut, Stephen, The Liturgy of the Church of England (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1941).

Sandon, Nick, The Use of Salisbury, Vol. 1 (Newton Abbot, Devon: Antico Edition, 1984).

The Ordinary of the Sarum Mass changed and developed over time.  Legg, The Sarum Missal (1916): 205-230. provides the Ordinary as found in the 13th century.  Legg. Tracts on the Mass (1904): 1-16, provides an example of the Ordinary as found in the 14th century.  This edition represents the Ordinary as found in the late 15th and early 16th century printed missals.  The principals differences will be noted in this companion.

In the Sarum Use, the blessing of salt and water and the sprinkling rite are separate from the mass itself. They are normally found at the beginning of the missal and at the beginning of the processional (the Vidi aquam normally appears on Easter Sunday). The 1526 and 1533 missals (Regnault), as well as the Marian missals (1554-55) include the Asperges and Vidi aquam near the beginning of the missal.

In the earlier printed missals the Ordinary of the Mass is usually found on Holy Saturday, whereas in the later ones it appears at the end of the Temporale, before the Sanctorale. Beginning at 1500, printed missals generally place the Ordinary at the end of the Temporale, but missals that place the Ordinary on Holy Saturday still appear in 1504, 1508, and 1512.

The Sarum Manuals also include the Prefaces and Canon of the Mass.

Prayers while vesting
Hymn. Veni Creator Spiritius
Attr. Rabanus Maurus (776-856)
Trans. (Performing Edition) Edward Caswall (1814-1878)
Trans. (Scholarly Edition) J. D. Chambers, The Seven Hours of Prayer, p. 129.
See AH-L: #144 (p. 193.)
(The familiar translation by Bishop Cosin, 1627, (EH: #153, The Hymnal Noted, #84) is unsuitable for this edition as it compresses the seven stanzas of the original into 4 and a half in the translation.)
The Hymn is taken from Terce of Pentecost.

V. Emitte Spiritum (Ps. 103:30, Old Roman).

Prayer. Deus cui omne cor patet
In the BCP this prayer (the Collect for Purity) is represented by the opening Collect of the Communion Service.

Ant. Introibo ad altare (Ps. 42:4)

Ave Maria
The text ‘Holy Mary . . . death’. is a later addition that appears only in selected later Sarum sources. This latter petition apparently first appeared in print in Girolamo Savonarola, Esposizione sopra l’Ave Maria, (1495).
In most versions ‘Christus’ is omitted.

V. Confitemini Domino (Ps. 105:1)

Confiteor Deo.
This also appears in the Office, at Prime and Compline.

Misereatur vestri. In fact the response should be ‘Misereatur tui omnipotens Deus, et dimittas tibi omnia peccata tua, liberes te ab omni malo : conserves et confirmes in bono et ad vitam perducas eternam.’ at this point (see Brev. [410]), and ‘Misereatur vestri’ when the priest says the words.  This distinction is evident in the Roman form.  See Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 13.

V. Adjutorium nostrum (Ps. 123:8)

V. Sit nomen Domini (Ps. 112:2)

Prayer. Aufer a nobis.

Gloria in excelsis
‘. . . pro dispositione cantoris.’ Although the cantor selects the melody for ‘Gloria in excelsis Deo’, the officiant intones it (which is why the intonations appear in the missal rather than the gradual). Presumably the cantor provides the intonation to the officiant immediately before he commences ‘Gloria in excelsis Deo’; this accords with the later rubric regarding the intonation on Double Feasts (1148).

‘non dicitur Gloria in excelsis. . . . nec a lxx. usque ad vigiliam pasche’  Note however that the Gloria is sung on Maundy Thursday if the Bishop is present. (see p. 641.)

Credo in unum Deum

Prayer. Suscipe Sancta Trinitas hanc oblationem

V. Dirigatur Domine ad te

Prayer. In spiritu humilitatis

Hostias et preces tibi

‘Et tunc accipiat subdyaconus offertorium . . .’  The ‘offertorium’ is the Offertory-Veil in which the Subdeacon holds the paten from the conclusion of the prayer Offerimus, till the end of the Pater noster. (Pugin, Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament: 168.)

In addition to the ‘ferial’ or daily Preface, the Sarum Ordinary contains the following proper prefaces:
–Lenten ferias
–Apostles and Evangelists
–Holy Cross
–Blessed Virgin Mary

The Sarum Preface music differs from the Roman forms in having a leap to C rather than a step to B in the concluding cadence (compare Pater noster below).

The ‘Sursum corda’ appears immediately before the daily (ordinary) Preface, rather than before the proper prefaces.

Daily Preface.

The ‘Majestas’, Christ in majesty.  Christ, crowned, is seated upon a throne, flanked by angels (singing Holy holy holy).  The orb represents Christ’s kingship over the world; with his right hand he gives a blessing.  Symbols of the four evangelists occupy the corners.

The Crucifixion. Jesus, nailed to the cross, is flanked by the blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist. Above is affixed the initials I.N.R.I. (Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum], Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. To the left and right are the sun and moon. In the background is the city of Jerusalem.

The Canon.
The initial letter, T, is designed also as a figure of the crucifixion. The Canon is often printed in larger type, as here, both in honour of its central importance, and to facilitate accurate recitation.

Proper forms of this section are found above, together with the proper Prefaces.

Hanc igitur
Proper forms of this section are found above, together with the proper Prefaces and Communicantes.


The Canon of the Mass properly concludes with this ‘Per omnia secula seculorum.  R. Amen.’  preceding the Lord’s prayer.  Nevertheless the Sarum books typically continue the large type until the end of the ablutions, and likewise also maintain ‘Canon’ in the header up to that point.  (The precise boundaries of the Canon of the Mass were not always precisely defined.)

Pater noster

The Sarum melody differs from the Roman form in having a leap to C rather than a step to B in the concluding cadences (‘nomen tuum’ and ‘et in terra’).  Compare the Prefaces above.)

Episcopal benediction

Pax Domini

Agnus Dei

Prayer. Placeat tibi

Prayers after the conclusion of the Mass

Prayers in prostration
The ‘Preces in prostratione’ are said on only some days. As an addition to the regular Mass, they are often placed at the end of the Ordinary rather than after the Ablutions. The ‘Preces in prostratione’ are said immediately before ‘Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum.’

Benedicamus Domino and Ite missa est.
These musical settings are placed at the end of the ordinary as a kind of appendix.

Cautele misse


Speculum Sacerdotum
The Speculum Sacerdotum is ascribed to Hugh of Saint-Cher (d. 1263), a Dominican friar and cardinal.  Is the the final portion of the Expositio misse seu speculum ecclesie.

Bernardus dicit: O sacerdos corpus
Ascribed to St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), this text is to be found in the Stella clericorum.

Orationes ante missam

Deus qui indignis dignos facis
Trans. Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 1.

Deus qui indignis dignos de peccatoribus
This prayer appears to be a variant of the previous one.

Domine non sum dignus ut intres
Trans. Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 1.

Obsecro te piissime Domine
Trans. Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 2.

Omnipotens sempiterne

Orationes post missam
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus conservator
Trans. Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 56.

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus Jesu Christe Domine est propicius
‘. . . Qui manducat meam carnem . . . in eo.’ John 6:57.
‘. . . ut in me cor mundum  . . confirmare digneris’ after Ps. 50: 12, 14.
‘. . . omnibus insidiis dyaboli . . . from the Litany (Brev.: [426]).

Gratias tibi ago . . . qui me dignatus
Trans. Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 57

Presbyter in Christi

Gratias ago tibi dulcissime

Omnipotens sempiterne . . . qui venisti

Gratias tibi ago . . . qui me immundum
Trans. Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 56.

Oratio preambula: Septies in hac die

Ora Augustine

Summe sacerdos (1)

Summe sacerdos (2)
Known as the Prayer of  St. Ambrose, it has been ascribed to Jean de Fecamp (d. 1079). It was included in John Burchard’s Ordo sevandus per sacercotem in celebratione misse (ca. 1500), and then in the Roman Missal.
This prayer appears in the (Tridentine) Missale Romanum of St. Pius V. (Ratisbon: Putstet, 1862: 70), where it is divided into seven sections, one for each day of the week.
Presumably Dickinson included it in his edition because of its association with the preceding prayer and its appearance in the Bromsgrove MIssal of 1511.

Viri venerabiles
Trans. John William Hewett, An English Version of the Ancient Poem Viri Venerabiles, Sacerdotes Dei (London: J. T. Hayes, 1861): 7.

Oratio Devota: Omniptens et misericors

Orationes pro bono felici regis nostri Henrici VII

Benedictione agni pasche: Deus celi

Missa reconciliationis beate Marie

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