Companion to the Missal A-Ordinary

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In addition to Pearson and Warren, the following books provide commentary and/or analysis and/or translation of the Sarum Ordinary:

William Maskell. The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England (London: William Pickering, 1846).

Charles Walker, The Liturgy of the Church of Sarum (London, J. T. Hayes, 1866).

Morse, Herbert George. Notes on Ceremonial from the Antient English Office Books (London: Pickering and Chatto, 1888.)

Daniel Rock, The Church of Our Fathers, ed. Hart and Frere Vol IV (London: John Murray, 1905).

Hurlbut, Stephen, The Liturgy of the Church of England (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1941).

Sandon, Nick, The Use of Salisbury, Vol. 1 (Newton Abbot, Devon: Antico Edition, 1984).

The Ordinary of the Sarum Mass changed and developed over time.  Legg, The Sarum Missal (1916): 205-230. provides the Ordinary as found in the 13th century.  Legg. Tracts on the Mass (1904): 1-16, provides an example of the Ordinary as found in the 14th century.  This edition represents the Ordinary as found in the late 15th and early 16th century printed missals.  The principals differences will be noted in this companion.

In the Sarum Use, the blessing of salt and water and the sprinkling rite are separate from the Mass itself. They are normally found at the beginning of the missal and at the beginning of the processional (the Vidi aquam normally appears on Easter Sunday). The 1526 and 1533 missals (Regnault), as well as the Marian missals (1554-55) include the Asperges and Vidi aquam near the beginning of the missal.

In the earlier printed missals the Ordinary of the Mass is usually found on Holy Saturday, whereas in the later ones it appears at the end of the Temporale, before the Sanctorale. Beginning at 1500, printed missals generally place the Ordinary at the end of the Temporale, but missals that place the Ordinary on Holy Saturday still appear in 1504, 1508, and 1512.

The Sarum Manuals also include the Prefaces and Canon of the Mass.

A helpful description of the Ordinary of the Sarum Mass appears in Dom Justin McCann, ‘A Sarum Missal: The Caldbeck Missal‘, Ampleforth Journal 24(1919):1-10; 78-89.

Prayers while vesting
Hymn. Veni Creator Spiritius
Attr. Rabanus Maurus (776-856)
Trans. (Performing Edition) Edward Caswall (1814-1878)
Trans. (Scholarly Edition) J. D. Chambers, The Seven Hours of Prayer, p. 129.
See AH-L: #144 (p. 193.)
(The familiar translation by Bishop Cosin, 1627, found in the BCP (EH: #153, The Hymnal Noted, #84) is unsuitable for this edition as it compresses the seven stanzas of the original into four and a half in the translation.)
The Hymn is taken from Terce of Pentecost.

V. Emitte Spiritum (Ps. 103:30, Old Roman).

Prayer. Deus cui omne cor patet
In the BCP this prayer (the Collect for Purity) is represented by the opening Collect of the Communion Service.

Ant. Introibo ad altare (Ps. 42:4)

Ave Maria
The text ‘Holy Mary . . . death’. is a later addition that appears only in selected later Sarum sources. This latter petition apparently first appeared in print in Girolamo Savonarola, Esposizione sopra l’Ave Maria, (1495).
In most versions ‘Christus’ is omitted.

V. Confitemini Domino (Ps. 105:1)

Confiteor Deo.
This also appears in the Office, at Prime and Compline.

Misereatur vestri. In fact the response should be ‘Misereatur tui omnipotens Deus, et dimittas tibi omnia peccata tua, liberes te ab omni malo : conserves et confirmes in bono et ad vitam perducas eternam.’ at this point (see Brev. [410]), and ‘Misereatur vestri’ when the priest says the words.  This distinction is evident in the Roman form.  See Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 13.

V. Adjutorium nostrum (Ps. 123:8)

V. Sit nomen Domini (Ps. 112:2)

Prayer. Aufer a nobis.

Gloria in excelsis
‘. . . pro dispositione cantoris.’ Although the cantor selects the melody for ‘Gloria in excelsis Deo’, the officiant intones it (which is why the intonations appear in the missal rather than the gradual). Presumably the cantor provides the intonation to the officiant immediately before he commences ‘Gloria in excelsis Deo’; this accords with the later rubric regarding the intonation on Double Feasts (1148).

‘. . . et etiam dicitur cum sua prosa in quotidianis missis in capella beate Marie omni sabbato.’  ‘Literal reading==”And it is said with its prose in the daily Masses in the Chapel of S. Mary every Saturday.”  Query if it means every Saturday, or “in the daily,” etc., and “every Saturday.”‘, Pearson, The Sarum Missal:294.

‘non dicitur Gloria in excelsis. . . . nec a lxx. usque ad vigiliam pasche’  Note however that the Gloria is sung on Maundy Thursday if the Bishop is present. (see p. 641.)

Post introitum vero misse . . .‘.  A rare use of ‘Introitum’ rather than ‘Officium’ in the Sarum Rite.  ‘. . . ad completorium prime collecte.‘,  Likewise a rare use of ‘collecte’ rather than ‘orationis’.

Credo in unum Deum

Prayer. Suscipe Sancta Trinitas hanc oblationem

V. Dirigatur Domine ad te (after Ps. 140:2)

Prayer. In spiritu humilitatis

Hostias et preces tibi

Requiem eternam

‘Et tunc accipiat subdyaconus offertorium . . .’  The ‘offertorium’ is the Offertory-Veil in which the Subdeacon holds the paten from the conclusion of the prayer Offerimus, till the end of the Pater noster. (Pugin, Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament: 168.)  See also Rock, The Church of Our Fathers I:329-334.

In addition to the ‘ferial’ or daily Preface, the Sarum Ordinary contains the following proper prefaces:
–Lenten ferias
–Apostles and Evangelists
–Holy Cross
–Blessed Virgin Mary

The Sarum Preface music differs from the Roman forms in having a leap to C rather than a step to B in the concluding cadence (compare Pater noster below).

Hanc igitur
‘. . . sed et cuncte familie tue, quam tibi offerimus’ ‘”Om behalf also of those whom Thou hast deigned to regenerate by water and the Holy Ghost, granting them remission of all their sins.”–’97, ’55 Missals.’, Pearson, The Sarum Missal:304.

‘. . . Et te in veneratione . . .’ ‘For use in daily masses of the B. V. M.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:39.

The ‘Sursum corda’ appears immediately before the daily (ordinary) Preface, rather than before the proper prefaces.
‘Per omnia secula seculorum.’  This is the conclusion of the Secret(s).
‘Habemus ad Dominum’ (We have (lifted them up) to the Lord).

Daily Preface.

When the assembly kneels following the Sanctus it does so until the Pax (See Use of Sarum I: 304).

The ‘Majestas’.
‘. . . we learn from Durandus . . . that some books had, besides the crucifix, a picture of the Father in majesty : and that some priests were accustomed to kiss the feet of that figure as well as of the crucified Lord. (Rationale Divin. Offic. iv. 35, 153.) This ‘majesty’ was the Father Almighty, represented, like the prophet Daniel’s “Ancient of Days,” as an awe-awakening old man, arrayed in alb, stole, and cope, and crowned with the papal tiara. In his left hand he held the mound, or globe of empire : and, with his outstretched right, he bestowed his benediction.’ Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:176.
The Father is flanked by angels (singing ‘Holy holy holy’). Symbols of the four evangelists occupy the corners. (cf. Apoc. 4:6-9, Ezech. 1:5-11.)

The Crucifixion. Jesus, nailed to the cross, is flanked by the blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist. Above is affixed the initials I.N.R.I. (Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum], Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. To the left and right are the sun and moon. In the background is the city of Jerusalem.
‘. . . many, if not all, our English priests used to kiss the figure of Christ our Lord, in the illumination which is to be found just before the canon in almost all hand-written, and engraved in very printed, missal. This is ordered in a rubric just before the canon of the mass, in a Sarum manual,–a manuscript of the middle of the fifteenth century, now in my hands. “Immediate ante Sc’s [Sanctus], elevet manus manus et paulatim eas dimittendo et iungendo cum dicit Benedictus, suam signet faciem. Deinde osculetur pedes crucifixi, vel librum. Deinde inclinet se toto corpore dicens, Adoramus te, Christe, et benedicimus tibi quia per crucem tuam redem,isti mundum, miserere nostri qui passus es pro nobis.”.’, Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:175.

The Canon.
The initial letter, T, is designed also as a figure of the crucifixion. The Canon is often printed in larger type, as here, both in honour of its central importance, and to facilitate accurate recitation.
‘”Vel,” originally a rubric which has crept into the text’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:43.

Memento Domine famulorum

‘among those other saints . . . he enumerated that one whose body lay enshrined in the church wherein he was then offering up the holy sacrifice.  Of this latter rite, we are told by Matthew Paris, in his life of Abbot William, who got this privilege from Pope Innocent III. in the council of Lateran. (‘ Abbas (S. Albani), erectus in medio, satis modeste et eleganter exorsus est, coram Papa et toto Concilio, suam sic in propatulo qusestionem:—” Sancte Pater, nos qui alicujus Sancti corpus in ecclesiis habere dinoscimur, licetne nobis in Secrete Missse, inter alios quos invocamus Suffragatores, nomen ipsius recitare ?  Desideramus super hoc certificari . . .” Ad quod, in audientia omnium, respondens Papa . . . dixit; ‘^ Videtur mihi dignum, jurique consonum, ut devote in Secrete Missse (videlicet, in serie prime nominatorum), Sanctus, cujus corpore aliqua gratulatur  ecclesia, nomen, eiusque suffragium in loco suo proprio merita
postuletur.”—Vitae S. Albani Abb., 76  [R.S., xxviii. i. 261, 262].)’,  Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:179.

Proper forms of this section are found above, together with the proper Prefaces.

‘It will be noticed that while Judas Iscariot is naturally omitted from this list of the twelve Apostles ; St. Paul, and not St. Matthias, takes his place, and is named next to St. Peter.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:43.  (But note that the name Matthias does appear in the invocation of the saints that follows the consecration, 1178.)

Hanc igitur
Proper forms of this section are found above, together with the proper Prefaces and Communicantes.

Quam oblationem
‘The elevation of the host before consecration is a peculiarity of the Anglican ritual (Sarum, York, and Hereford Uses,)–see Simmons, T. F. Lay Folks Mass Book, London, 1879, p. 283.’  But this ‘elevation’ is not necessarily any more than taking the bread in his hands, in imitation of the words that follow.  Legg, The Sarum Missal:222. gives an alternate reading from  ‘M’, a Sarum Missal formerly in the possession of William Morris: ‘elevet hostiam parvum ab altari‘. (Cairncross, Ritual Notes #509 indicates that the  priest ‘lifts the bread slightly above the corporal’.)  It is certainly not to be compared with the lifting ‘above his forehead’ which happens after the consecration of the Bread.  Nevertheless it is true that the Roman form omits this rubric (Maskell, Ancient Liturgy (1882):133.

Qui pridie quam pareretur
According to Adrian Fortescue, The Mass: A Study of the Roman Liturgy (Lonodn: Longmans, Green and Co., 1914):99, ‘the introduction to the words of institution, which in both the Roman and Gallican rites is : “Qui pridie quam pateretur,” whereas most Eastern liturgies have the form : “In the night in which he was betrayed”.
‘. . . et postea elevet eam supra frontem ut possit a populo videri . . .’

‘The precise time when the elevation just after the consecration got into use in England,
is not known; we learn, however, from various sources, that the thirteenth century is, most likely, the period which saw its first adoption here.  In a synod held under Archbishop Stephen
Langton, at Oxford (A.D. 1222), it was decreed that the laity should be continually urged to genuflect when the Blessed Sacrament was carried by, and also at the elevation of the host in the consecration of the mass (Frequenter moneantur laici, ut ubicunque videant Corpus
Domini deferri, statim genua flectant tanquam Creatori et Rede mptori suo; et junctis manibus, quousque transierit, orent humiliter, et hoc maxime fiat tempore consecrationis in elevatione hostise, quum panis in verum corpus Christi transformatur, et id, quod est in calice, in sui sanguinem mystica benedictione transformatur.—Wilkins, Concil., i. 594.)  :  and Hugh Patshull, bishop of Lichfield (A.D. 1240), gave similar directions, in one of his statutes for his cathedral. (Quando elevatur corpus Christi adoret stando, quo dimisso prosternat se chorus.—Dugdale, Mon, Anglic, viii. 1259.)  Whether, at that period, the chalice also used to be elevated,
as well as the host, is not quite clear; and, from the wording of the two quotations just
cited, it would seem it was not.  Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:181.

‘John Becon in the Reformation time, attacking the Mass, says that if the celebrant did not elevate high enough, “the rude people of the countrey in diverse parts of England will crye out to the priest: houlde up Sir John, houlde up. Heave it a little higher.” It was apparently this desire to see the elevation that caused the custom of ringing the bell–at first to call people from without to see it. The server at Low Mass rang a little bell through the low side-window just before the elevation, that people might enter the church in time. The Roman Ordines have nothing about ringing a bell at the elevation ; though they contain the notice that Church bells are not to be rung after the Gloria on Maundy Thursday. But Ivo of Chartres († 1115) mentions a bell at the elevation, apparently the great bell of the church. Durandus says “at the elevation of both (kinds) a little bell (squilla) is rung”. A middle sized one (Sanctus bell, Sance bell) was rung at the Sanctus. This was hung up, often in a little bell-cote in the roof, so that it could be heard outside, and was rung with a rope which hung down to near the server’s place. Then there was as little handbell (the sacring bell) like the ones we still use for the elevation. The Synod of Exeter in 1287 ordered that there should be in every church “campanella deferenda ad infirmos et ad elevationem corporis Christi”. Besides this the great bell of the church was to be tolled when the sacred Host was raised, to let those who were in the fields know the moment of the consecration. So in inventories of churches in Edward VI’s reign there are three kinds of bells, the great church bells, the sance bell, and the sacring-bell. (Wilkins : Concilia ii, 139 ; Rock : op. cit. iv, p 179.)’ Adrian Fortescue, The Mass: A Study of the Roman Liturgy (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1914):341.

‘On hearing the sacring bells first tinkle, those in church who were not already on their knees knelt down, and, with upraised hands, worshipped their Maker in the holy housel lifted on high before them.’, Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:183.

‘effundetur.  The present tense “is shed” in the Anglican rite corresponds to the old Gallican “effunditur” in the Sacramentarium Gallicanum.  Mabillon, Museum Italicum, Tom. I, p. 280; and to the present tense used here in the Byzantine Rite, and in other Eastern Liturgies.  Brightman (F. E.) Eastern Liturgies, pp. 328, 52, 133, etc.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:45.

Unda et memores
‘”justi.” The justi are among the classes of saints sometimes commemorated or invoked in Western Liturgies and Litanies.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:46.

cancellatis manibus‘  ‘i.e. lattice-wise.’ Warren, The Sarum Missal I: 47.  ‘The expression may here mean simply “with clasped hands,” . . . ‘  W. H. Rich Jones, ed., Vetus registrum Sarisberiense (London: Longman & Co., 1883): 154.  ‘and crossing his fingers‘, Charles Walker, The Liturgy of the Church of Sarum (London: J. Y. Hayes, 1866):68.

In  Statera Sacra Missam Juxta Ritum Ordine Praedicatorum (Naples, 1696):375. we find ‘ Quo attinet ad ritum, quo a Romano differimus, cancellatis manibus, hanc exhibendi inclinationem, (quae unica, ex quinque olim in usu, reliqua est,) non fuit nostrorum inventum.  Ambrosianus enim, ac Carthusiensis, qui nostrum precesserunt, idem praescribunt ; Ambrosiano sic jubente : inclinet se versus Sacrificium manibus in modum Crucis positis ; Carthusiensi vero sic ; Ad, supplices, cancellatis manibus ita quod sinistra sit inferior, & junctis digitis, quibus Hostiam tenuit, inclinatur ante faciem Altaris.  Et fortasse tempore Durandi communis eum praxis commendabat, postmodum proscripta, ut reverentiae Sacramenti omnino consuleretur, manibus intra Corporale continuo retentis.  Nam lib. 4. c. 44. indefinite ille sic loquitur : considerari etiam oportet, quod Sacerdos discendo, Supplices, stat inclinatus, cancellatis manibus ante pectus.

In Timothy Cunningham, A New and Complete Law Dictionary, I:1783, we find ‘Cancellare manus, to cancellate the hands, that is to lay them traverse, or a-cross one another, as the poor children on the foundation of Queen’s College Oxon. do attend the provost and fellows at table, manibus cancellatis, with their hands leaning a-cross on the one side of the table.  Extendit collum genu flectendo, cancellatis manibus super pectus suum, ita decollatur.  Clem. de Maydestan, de Martyrio  Ric. Scrope Archiep. Ebor. apud Whartoni Angl. Sacr. p. 2. p. 373.

Apparently not the same as ‘cancellatis manibus incurvari‘ ‘idest, una manu in modum Crucis super aliam posita.’, Onomasticon Sacrum (Rome, 1764):59.

cancellatis manibus‘ is found at this location also in the Cologne Missal, 1487 (unpaged).


Supplices te rogamus

The Canon of the Mass properly concludes with this ‘Per omnia secula seculorum.  R. Amen.’  preceding the Lord’s prayer.  Nevertheless the Sarum books typically continue the large type until the end of the ablutions, and likewise also maintain ‘Canon’ in the header up to that point.  (The precise boundaries of the Canon of the Mass were not always precisely defined.)

Pater noster
The Sarum melody differs from the Roman form in having a leap to C rather than a step to B in the concluding cadences (‘nomen tuum’ and ‘et in terra’).  Compare the Prefaces above.)

Libera nos quesumus
‘This expansion of the last petition in the Pater Noster is known as the Embolismus.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:49.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, ‘Embolism’, ‘During the Middle Ages the provincial churches and religious orders added the names of other saints, their founders, patrons, etc., according to the discretion of the celebrant. (see MICROLOGUS)’

Episcopal benediction
See also Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglicanae, (2nd edit, Oxford, 1882), I: cxlv-vii.
Episcopal benedictions are found in the Sarum Pontificale, Cambridge, Trinity College MS B 11.9, beginning at fo. 126r.
J Wickam Legg, ed., Missale Ecclesie Westmonasteriensis II (London, 1893) contains episcopal benedictions for the liturgical year, beginning at column 533.
Episcopal benedictions are found in the Pontificale Romanum (Venice, 1520): 236r-252r.  ‘It states however that the Roman church  no longer (at that time) used them : “Has autem benedictiones ecclesia Romana non habet in usu : sed in fine missae dicuntur, Sit nomen Domini benedictum,”, &c.’, Maskell: cxlvi. (Pont. Rom.:237r.)

Pax Domini

Agnus Dei

Domine sancte Pater
‘This seems to be a Mozarabic prayer, see Hammond, (C. E.) Litt. E. and W., Oxford, 1878, p. 351.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:51.

‘Diaconus a dextris sacerdotis ab eo pacem recipiat . . . ‘

‘Keeping up the old usage followed by the Anglo-Saxons, the Salisbury rubric was to send,
just before the communion, the Pax all about the church. This token of good-will and brotherly
love was conveyed from one to another by a kiss upon the cheek. Pressing his lips to the outside of the chalice, which held the blood of Christ, the sacrificing priest thus took, as it were, the kiss from our Lord himself, and then gave it either to the individual highest in holy orders
then present, or to the person who served his mass. This clerk, in his turn, carried the kiss
from the altar to the people by kissing the chief personage among the men, who, turning about, saluted each his neighbour. . . . About the middle of the thirteenth century, a new way of giving this kiss of peace was followed.  Instead of the clerk’s cheek, the priest kissed the figure of our Blessed Lord, painted on a small piece of wood, or graven on a plate of copper, set in a frame, with a handle behind, as is shown in this cut. So shaped, it could easily be carried about among the people by the clerk, in his left hand; and, after each kiss bestowed upon it, wiped with a little napkin which he held for that purpose in his right hand.

‘The earliest mention anywhere of such a ritual appliance, is to be found among this country’s ecclesiastical enactments, in which it is called ” osculatorium,” ” asser pacis,” “tabula pacis.” (Among other sacred things to be found by the parishioners for their church, according to the statutes of Archbishop Walter Gray, for his province of York (A.D. 1250), was “osculatorium.” (Wilkins, Concil., i. 698.) In like manner the synod of Exeter (A.D. 1287) decreed there should be ” asser ad pacem ” {ibid., ii. 139), and the council of Merton (A.D. 1305), “tabulas pacis ad osculatorium ” (ibid., 280).)  Its more common name was (162) *’ pax-brede,” which at once told its liturgical purpose, and of what material it happened, at first, to be generally made.  Afterwards, gold, silver, ivory, jewels, enamel, and the most beautiful workmanship, were bestowed upon i t ; though, for poor churches, it still continued to be of wood, or, at most, of copper gilt.

‘How the pax-brede used to stand on the altar all through mass, is shown by the accompanying picture.

‘As a kind of public penance from notorious and hardened sinners, the first thing was to withhold, not only the holy bread, but the “pax” also, at the parochial mass on Sundays.’   Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:185.

Domine Jesu Christe Fili Dei vivi

‘Salvator mundi.  This is a Hispano-Gallican phrase.  It has been dropped in R.  The fact of a prayer being addressed to the second person in the Trinity is almost a certain sign of Gallican or Mozarabic origin.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:52.

‘cum humiliatione.  Perhaps, with an act of prostration.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:53.

Ave in eternum sanctissima caro
‘This is a Mozarabic salutation.  Hammond (C. E.) Litt. E. and W., Oxford, 1878, p. 351.’, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:53. (The following salutation is likewise Mozarabic.)

Ave in eternum celestis potus

‘Post perceptionem ablutionum ponat sacerdos calicem super patenam . . . ‘ ‘The Manuals of ’37 and other earlier dates, and the Missal of ’54, make the Deacon perform the ablutions which follow immediately after the communion of the Blood.  After the asterisked rubric is this: “Which having drunk, let the Priest go to the midst of the Altar and place the chalice . . . and, after inclining himself before the Altar, say with great devotion, ‘I return thanks to Thee . . . unto life everlasting.’  Then let him go to the right side of the Altar and wash his hands,” etc.’, Pearson, The Sarum Missal:321.

‘The custom, nowhere practised now, of laying the chalice down to drain upon the paten, is well shown in this picture.’, Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:194.

Prayer. Placeat tibi

‘Though not prescribed, the blessing, after some way or another, of the people by the priest who had just done mass, it is likely, was allowed under the Sarum use.  In that of York, the priest gave a blessing to those about him, with the empty chalice and the folded corporals after mass, upon every festival of the double class.  (Benedictio generalis, cum calice et corporalibus plicatis, post missam dicetur omnibus festis duplicibus per annum hoc modo :—
Adiutorium nostrum in nomine Domini:
Qui fecit celum et terram.
Sit nomen Domini benedictum:
Ex hoc nunc et usque in seculum.
Benedicat vos divina maiestas et una deltas ; pater et filius + et spiritus sanctus.—York Missal (Surtees See), ii. 196.

‘At Evreux the custom was to bestow this benediction with the chalice only (Martene, De Antiq, Ecc. Rit., i. 4, art. xii. ordo xxviii.); and in Belgium the paten served the purpose, as the accompanying illustration shows.’, Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:195.

‘If not the general, it seems to have been a very common, practice with our old English priests
to distribute the Eucharist among the people, not at the communion of the mass, but when
the holy sacrifice had been done.

‘After communion, lay folks drank, not of the consecrated chalice, but unhallowed wine
from out another chalice, to help them to swallow with more ease and readiness the Eucharistic particle. Such a rubric was especially followed at the general houselings of the people at Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas, and the priest was told to warn his flock, that what they sipped from the chalice was mere wine; for in the Sacrament, though given them under one kind only, they had the blood as well as the flesh of Christ,—Christ whole and entire, true and alive, with all of himself, flesh and blood, in the Sacrament.  (This we learn from Archbishop Peckham, who says : Attendant insuper sacerdotes, quod cum communionem sacram porrigunt simplicibus paschali tempore vel alio, solicite eos instruant sub panis
specie simul eis dari corpus et sanguinem Domini, immo Christum integrum, vivum et verum, qui totus est sub specie sacramenti.  Doceant etiam eosdem illud quod ipsis eisdem temporibus in calice propinatur, sacramentum non esse, sed vinum purum eis hauriendum, traditum, ut facilius sacrum corpus glutiant, quod perceperunt. —Wilkins,  Concil, ii. 53.  By the council of Exeter (A.D. 1287) it was enacted that in every church there must be, among other things, a little cup of silver or tin for taking to the sick, who should drink out of it the water in which the priest had washed the tips of his fingers after he had given them the viaticum:—Sit
in qualibet ecclesia . . . ciphus argenteus vel stannous pro infirmis, ut postquam Eucharistiam assumpserint, loturam digitorum suorum sacerdos sibi prsebeat in eodem.—Ed. Camden, 139.)’ Rock, The Church of Our Fathers IV:197.

Prayers after the conclusion of the Mass

V. Benedicamus Patrem (from the Canticle Benedicite omnia opera, v. 20.)

V. Non intres in judicium (Ps. 142:2)

V. Domine Deus virtutum (Ps. 79:20)

V. Domine exaudi orationem (Ps. 101:2)

Prayer. Deus qui tribus pueris mitigasti
This prayer also appears after the Tract from Daniel on the Four Ember Saturdays.

Prayer. Ure igne Sancti Spiritus (cf. Ps. 25:2)

Prayer. Actiones nostras quesumus
This prayer appears in Liber precum publicarum amongst the prayers to be said if there are no communicants.  However, the form in the Book of Common Prayer is different .

Prayers in prostration
The ‘Preces in prostratione’ are said on only some days. As an addition to the regular Mass, they are often placed at the end of the Ordinary rather than after the Ablutions. The ‘Preces in prostratione’ are said immediately before ‘Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum.’

Ant. Tua est potentia (cf. I Para 29:11)

V. Exurgat Deus et dissipentur (Ps. 67:2)

V. Non nobis Domine (Ps. 113:9)

R. Libera Deus Israel (after Ps. 24:22)

V. Mitte eis Domine (after Ps. 19:3)

V. Esto nobis Domine turris (after Ps. 60:4)

V. Domine salvum fac regem (Ps. 19:10)

V. Domine exaudi orationem (Ps. 101:2)


Prayer. Deus qui admirabili providentia
Apparently a prayer for the success of the first crusade.  It appears in the Encyclical of Pope Innocent III, Quia Major, April. 1213.

Prayer. Rege quesumus Domine famulum tuum
This also appears in the Sarum Missals in the Memorial of a Bishop.

Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus : famulo tuo

Benedicamus Domino and Ite missa est.
These musical settings are placed at the end of the ordinary as a kind of appendix.

Ite missa est
‘”Ite missa est.” the exact translation is uncertain.  It may be “Depart, the congregation is dismissed.”, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:55.  ‘It is impossible to translate this with justice: Depart, the Mass is ended, is something like the sense.’, Pearson, The Sarum Missal:321.

Cautele misse
While the cautels appear infrequently in medieval liturgical books, they are not unique to the Sarum Rite.  They appear, for example, in the Eichstatt Missal, 1486.
The Cautels ‘are contained in most of the ancient English Missalia, and other Office Books subsequent to the beginning of the fourteenth century, for they are not to be found entered therein previously to that period.  Those in the York (printed) Missale, for they are not in the MSS., are nearly identical with those of Sarum, but the Hereford Cautels differ in certain respects.
The Hereford Cautels require (which was the rule throughout England) that every Priest whom Canonical necessity did not excuse, was bound, once at least in the week, to receive the Body of Christ, and that the body of the Lord be conserved for the sick should be renewed every Sunday.’  John David Chambers, Divine Worship in England in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries (London: Basil Montague Pickering, 1877):297.
A translation by John Purchas (London: Joseph Masters, 1858) is available, transcribed by Peter Owen, 2006.
A translation appears in John David Chambers, Divine Worship in England in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries (London: Basil Montague Pickering, 1877):297-302.
A translation appears in Frederick George Lee, Directorium Anglicanorum, 2nd. ed. (London: Thomas Bosworth, 1865):83-92.

These are found in the Sarum and York (printed) Missals.

Speculum Sacerdotum
The Speculum Sacerdotum is ascribed to Hugh of Saint-Cher (d. 1263), a Dominican friar and cardinal.  Is the the final portion of the Expositio misse seu speculum ecclesie.
A translation appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal: 271.

Bernardus dicit: O sacerdos corpus
Ascribed to St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), this text is to be found in the Stella clericorum. and also appears as a continuation of the Speculum Sacerdotum.
A translation appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:273.

Orationes ante missam
Deus qui de indignis dignos facis
Other translations appear in Warren, The Sarum Missal I:17, Chambers, A Companion to Confession and Holy Communion:52. and Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 1.

Deus qui indignis dignos de peccatoribus
This prayer appears to be a variant of the previous one.

Domine non sum dignus ut intres (cf. Mat. 8:8, Luke 7:6)
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:276, Warren, The Sarum Missal I:18, Richard Henry Cresswell, Prayers for the Laity (1877):164, and Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 1.
The Prayer attributed to St. Thomas Aquinas, ‘Omnipotens sempiterne Deus ecce accedo’ is largely based on this Prayer (see below).

Obsecro te piissime Domine
Sources for this prayer appear to be limited to Sarum Missals.
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:277, Chambers, A Companion to Confession:60; and Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 2.
‘. . . quam suavis est Domine . . . ‘ cf.  Pss. 33:9; 99:5.

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus ecce accedo.
Attributed to St. Thomas Aquinas.
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:276; Warren, The Sarum Missal I:19; and Roman Catholic Daily Missal 1962:88.
This prayer appears to be based on the prayer ‘Domine non sum dignus ut intres’ (see above).

Oratio Devota: Omnipotens et misericors
This Prayer is a variant of the above.

Orationes post missam
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus conservator
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal: 323; Warren, The Sarum Missal I:61; Chambers, A Companion to Confession:89; and Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 40.

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus Jesu Christe Domine esto propicius
Attributed to St. Bonaventure (see Entretiens du prêtre avec Jésus-Christ I (Lyon: E.-B. Labaume, 1843):94) See also PL-121:827.
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:323; Warren, The Sarum Missal I:61;  Chambers, A Companion to Confession:86
‘. . . Qui manducat meam carnem . . . in eo.’ John 6:57.
‘. . . ut in me cor mundum  . . confirmare digneris’ after Ps. 50: 12, 14.
‘. . . omnibus insidiis dyaboli . . . from the Litany (Brev.: [426]).

Gratias tibi ago . . . qui me dignatus
The sources for the Prayer appear to be limited to Sarum Missals.
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:323; Warren, The Sarum Missal I:61; Chambers, A Companion to Confession:91; and Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 57.

Presbyter in Christi
Trans. Warren, The Sarum Missal I:62.
Another translation appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:324.
In Augustin-Pierre-Paul Caron, Manuel des cérémonies selon le rite de l’église de Paris (Paris: Adrien le Clere, 1816): ‘Notice historique sur les rites de l’église de Paris’: 24. this verse is titled ‘De regimine sacerdotum.’

Gratias ago tibi dulcissime
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:324; Chambers, A Companion to Confession:90; and Divine Service: A Complete Manual of Worship (London: G. J. Palmer, 1878):103.
This Prayer appears also in the York Missals.

Omnipotens sempiterne . . . qui venisti
Anther translation appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:325.

Gratias tibi ago . . . qui me immundum
Other translations appear in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:325; Chambers, A Companion to Confession:89; and Herbert George Morse, Notes on Ceremonial: 40.

Oratio preambula: Septies in hac die
This prayer properly pertains to the Office, and not to the Mass.
Another translation appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:270.
‘Septies in hac die laudem dicam tibi’ cf. Ps. 118:164.
‘. . . septem demonia ab illa evangelica Maria per Christum ejecta . . .’, cf. Luke 8:2.
‘. . . octonarium beatitudinum . . . ‘, cf. Mat. 5:3-10.
‘. . . sacrificium laudis . . .’, Heb. 13:15.
‘. . . hostiam vivam sanctam, probatam, tibi placitam . . .’, cf. Rom. 12:1.
‘. . . diffunde gratiam tuam in labiis meis . . .’, cf. Ps. 44:3.
‘. . . de corde bono . . .’, Luke 8:15.
‘. . . eructare verbum bonum . . .’, cf. Ps. 44:2.
‘. . . propter gratiam labiorum . . .’, Prov. 22:11.
‘. . . in voce exultationsi et confessionis . . .’, Ps. 41:5.
‘. . . os meum aperiam . . .’, cf. Ps. 50:17.
This latter verse, significantly, is also the opening Versicle of Matins. (See Brev.:38.)

Summe sacerdos (1)
Another translation appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:273.
‘Hec quotiescunque feceritis : in mei memoriam facietis.’ cf. I Cor. 11:25.
(Up to this point the following prayer is similar.)
‘. . . de indignis dignos, . . . justos facis et sanctos.’ See the first two prayers to be said before Mass, 1207.

Summe sacerdos (2)
Known also as the Prayer of St. Ambrose, it has been ascribed to Jean de Fecamp (d. 1079). In the Missale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis I (1872):163. it is titled ‘Oratio sancti Augustini’.
As the notes indicate, this prayer exists in several version.
Other translations appear in Chambers, A Companion to Confession:53; in Littledale and Vaux, The Priest’s Prayer Book (London: J. Masters and Co., 1876):10; and in Thesaurus Precum Latinarum.
It was included in John Burchard’s Ordo sevandus per sacercotem in celebratione misse (ca. 1500), and then in the Roman Missal.
This prayer appears in the (Tridentine) Missale Romanum of St. Pius V. (Ratisbon: Putstet, 1862: 70), where it is divided into seven sections, one for each day of the week.
Presumably Dickinson included it in his edition because of its association with the preceding prayer and its appearance in the Bromsgrove Missal of 1511.
‘Hoc quotienscumque feceritis in mei memoriam facietis.’ cf. I Cor. 11:25.
‘Tu enim misereris omnium Domine et nichil odisti eorum que fecisti.’, cf. Sap. 11:25.
‘Tu Deus noster es, ne irascaris satis’, cf. Is. 64:8-9.
‘. . . neque multitudinem viscerum tuorum super nos contineas.’ cf. Is. 63:15.
‘. . . pane vivo qui descendisti de celo, et das vitam mundo, . . .’, cf. Joh. 6:33.
‘Panis quem ego dabo caro mea est pro mundi vita.’, Joh. 6:52.
‘Qui manducat me, ipse vivet propter me’, Joh. 6:58.
‘et ipse manet in me et ego in eo.’, Joh. 6:57.
‘Ego sum panis vivus . . . vivet in eternum.’, John. 6:51-52.
‘. . . ubi non misteriis sicut in hoc tempore agitur, sed facie ad faciem te videbims.’, cf. I Cor. 13:12.

Viri venerabiles
Trans. John William Hewett, An English Version of the Ancient Poem Viri Venerabiles, Sacerdotes Dei (London: J. T. Hayes, 1861): 7.  This translation also appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:274.


Orationes pro bono felici regis nostri Henrici VII (VIII)
These prayers are similar to (but not the same as) those found in the Mass for the King (amongst the Votive Masses).

Quesumus omnipotens et misericors Deus ut rex noster
‘. . . qui via veritas et vita . . . ‘, after John 14:6.

Benedictione agni pasche: Deus celi
Another translation appears in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:594.

Missa reconciliationis beate Marie
This Mass is rarely to be found in medieval sources.  With the exception of the Officium, the texts are not borrowed from other existing masses.

Officium.  Gaudeamus omnes in Domino (Ps. 44:2)
This Officium is also used for several other feasts, notably the principal feasts of the Blessed Virgin (The Conception, the Visitation, the Assumption, and the Nativity), but also the Feasts of St. Agatha, the Translation of St. Edmund, St. Anne, and All Saints.
Different sources (Roman and Dominican) apply the B-flat at different places.

Gradual. Luce splendida fulgebis (Tobit 13:13-15)

Alleluya. Beati omnes qui diligunt te (after Tob. 13:18. 23)

Sequence. Mittit ad sterilem
The translation is adapted from that found in Pearson, The Sarum Missal:529.
AH-VIII:#53 (p. 51)  It appears, as indicated in in AH, that the text can be sung to the melody of Mittit ad virginem (Votive Masses for the Blessed Virgin).

Offertory. Beatam te dicent omnes generationes (after Luke 1:48-49)

Secret. Domine Jesu Christe, sanctarum cogitationum
This Secret appears to be only in Sarum sources.

Communion. Benedicite Deum celi cum timore (cf. Tobit 13:6, 8:18)

Postcommunion. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus sacramenta
This Postcommunion appears to be only in Sarum sources.


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