Companion to the Missal D: Common Tones

Psalm-Tones at the Officium (Introit).
Each Officium includes a Psalm-Verse (or other text) set to a melodic formula in one of the eight modes. The Gloria Patri is set to the same melodic formula. (Gloria Patri is omitted during Passiontide and in Requiem masses.) The Psalm-Tones at the Officium are related to the Psalm-Tones of the Office, but are not the same. Knowledge of the Officium Tones is not necessary for performance, since the Officium Psalm-verses are always written out in full.  But an understanding of the structure will assist in discerning the differences between the Sarum Use and other practices.  (This understanding is also necessary for adapting the Sarum chant to English texts.) The file Gloria Patri at the Officium provides a summary of these Tones.

Structure of the Sarum Psalm-Tones at the Officium.
The melodic formula consists in the opening phrase of first intonation, reciting tone, mediation; in the closing phrase, of second intonation, reciting tone, and ending.  In case of the Gloria Patri–and in the Officium for Ascension Day–there is an intermediary third phrase consisting of the second intonation, reciting tone, and mediation.  (In Tone VI this intermediary phrase has a unique, third intonation.)    The file Sarum Tones for the Officium illustrates these Tones.

The first intonation always take the first available syllables regardless of accent.  The second intonation also takes the first available syllables, except in the case of Tone V.

In the Sarum Use the mediations of Tones I. III. and VII. are of two accents.  The mediations of Tones II. IV. V. VI. and VIII. are normally of one accent. Exceptions to this principle and variants amongst sources are noted in the edition.  (In contrast, the Solemn mediations of Psalm-Tones II. IV. VI. and VIII. in the Sarum Breviary are of two accents.) The endings of Tones I, II, VI, and VII. are cursive; that is they are not modified on account of text accent. The endings of Tones III and IV and VIII. are of one accent. The ending of Tone V is of two accents.

(In the Graduale Romanum 1908 and in the Liber Usualis the mediation of Tone VI. is normally of two accents–the Seventh Sunday after Pentecost is an exception; all the endings are cursive, except Tone V. which is of two accents, and Tone VIII. which is of one accent.  The differences of detail throughout the Tones, compared to the Sarum forms, are noted below.)

(In the Dominican Graduale 1950 all the mediations of the Gloria Patri except Tone V. are of two accents; nevertheless the Psalm-verses are not necessarily of two accents: see for example Friday in the Ember Days of Advent, page 10, and the second Mass of Christmas, page 29.  The Dominican Graduale provides only one ending for each Tone.  The differences of detail throughout the Tones, compared to the Sarum forms, are noted below.)

In the Requiem Mass the Officium, unusually, uses the Psalm-Tone of the Officum.

In a few cases there is insufficient text to accommodate both intonation and mediation in the Psalm-Tone at the Officium.  In such cases the intonation is retained whilst the mediation is curtailed or omitted.  Likewise the second intonation may be omitted.  See for example Saturday in the third week of Lent.

Officium Tone I
Mediation of 2 accents; cursive ending of 5 syllables; 4 endings.  In the ending the pattern of a single F followed by a neume beginning on F can a accommodate a either a penultimate accent or an ante-penultimate accent (compare Tone VII).  (In some instances some Sarum sources set the ending as 2 accents.)

The Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis do not include the fourth ending.  The penultimate neume of endings 1 and 3 is FFF.  In the Dominican Graduale the penultimate neume is FE.

Officium Tone II
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables (exceptionally 2 accents with 1 preparatory syllable); cursive ending of 5 syllables; 1 ending.

In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the first intonation is C.DC.CF. In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; the second intonation is F.DF.

Officium Tone III
Mediation of 2 accents; ending of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; 2 endings.  (In some instances some Sarum sources set the ending as 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables.)  A liquescent (Ba) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending.

In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the final neume of the mediation is CCC; only the first ending is included.  The Dominican Graduale includes only the first ending.

Officium Tone IV
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables (exceptionally 2 accents with 1 preparatory syllable); cursive ending of 5 syllables (exceptionally 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables); 2 endings.  A liquescent (Gf) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending.

In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the second ending concludes EGFF.  In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; only the first ending appears.

Officium Tone V
Mediation of 1 accent with no preparatory syllables (an exceptional abrupt mediation appears on the emphatic monosyllable ‘fac’ in the Officium for the ninth Sunday after Trinity); continuation A.C. (exceptional continuation C.C.C); ending of two accents; 3 endings.   The ending is notable in that it introduces a new note, C after the first accent when an additional unaccented syllable appears.

In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the mediation is of one accent with one preparatory syllable, D.D; only the first two endings appear. The Dominican Graduale gives only the third ending.

Officium Tone VI
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; continuation on A to a strong syllable AC followed by G and then the reciting note on F (exceptional continuations are to be found); cursive ending, one ending.  A liquescent (Gf) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending.  In the Gloria Patri the intermediary phrase has a unique intonation, F.GA.A.  Tone VI. also sometimes includes an inflection, FG. in the recitation tone of the final phrase.

In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the mediation, A.B-flat.A.G.F, is of two accents; the second intonation of the Gloria Patri is F.GA.A; the final intonation is F.GA.AC.G.F; a second ending appears, in which the final neume is FGAG.  In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; the final intonation is F.A.AC.G.F.

Officium Tone VII
Mediation of 2 accents; ending of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; 3 endings. In the ending the pattern of a single C followed by a neume beginning on C can accommodate either a penultimate accent or an ante-penultimate accent (compare Tone I).

The Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis has only the third ending, as follows: DEF.D.C.CCC.AG. In the Dominican Graduale, which has only the third ending, the second last syllable is CB.

Officium Tone VIII
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables (exceptionally 2 accents with 1 preparatory syllable); ending of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; 2 endings.  A liquescent Ag) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending.

In Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the first intonation appears as G.AG.GC.  In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; the second intonation is C.AC.

Tone for the Preface
In general terms the Tone for the Preface resembles the Lesson Tones, with reciting tone, mediation and ending.  The sources present considerable diversity in their details.  Such diversity seems typical of such solo repertoire.

There is no intonation, seeing that the Preface continues directly from the preceding versicles, using the reciting note C.  (In the Solemnes editions ‘Vere dignum’ begins with one A before the reciting tone continues.)

Normally the reciting tone is on C, however following the mediation the reciting note may return to C or continue with B.  (In the Solesmes editions the concluding reciting tone is always B.)

The mediation is of two accents with no preparatory syllables. The first accent is on C (the reciting tone) with subsequent weak syllables on B; the second accent is on AB with subsequent weak syllables on B.
Two or more mediations may follow in succession.

The continuation of the reciting note on C is typically begun by a flex of one or two syllables, depending on the accentual pattern.
The continuation of the reciting note on B omits any flex, but often contains a single C on an accented syllable before the ending.

The simple ending consists of one accent with four preparatory syllables, C AG GA C; the accent is sung AB, with one or two weak syllables following on A.

When the reciting tone preparatory to the ending is C, an inflection to B may occur on the preceding one, two or three unaccented syllables.

When there are only three or four syllables preparatory to the ending they are sung on B, except the accent, which is on C; thus ‘per Christum’ is B C.B, and ‘qui abstulit’ is B. C.B.B.

In the context of the above guiding patterns, variations are to be found, particularly in the passages preceding the ending. The factors that determine the choice of the reciting tone on B or C for concluding phrases are not entirely clear at this point.

In the Arsenal Missal the note preceding the final accent of the mediation is BA (as in the Solesmes editions).

In Rylands-24 the mediation has a single preparatory note, B, before the first accent.  (Note, however, that the music is a tone lower, so this preparatory note appears as A.)

Sanctus

The Sanctus can normally be tonally connected with the Preface such that the final note A of the preface will be sol (G) of the Sanctus in Mode VI, la (A) of the Sanctus in Modes I, V and VIII, or re (D) of the Sanctus in Mode II.