Nativity, December 25
Resp. Descendit de celis
Prose. Felix Maria; Familiam custodi
On the Christmas Proses see Thomas Forrest Kelly, “Neuma Triplex”, Acta Musicologica, LX-1 (1988): 1-30.
V. Tanquam sponsus
Prose. Familiam custodi Christe
V. Gloria Patri
Prose. Te Laudant
Ant. Hodie Christus natus est
Saint Stephen, December 26
Resp. Sancte Dei
Prose. Te mundi
Saint John, December 27
Holy Innocents, December 28
Saint Thomas, December 29
Resp. Jacet granum
Prose. Clangat pastor
Circumcision, January 1
Prose. Quem etherea
En rex venit
Gloria laus et honor
According to Gueranger, the shift of this service from the night to earlier in the day occurred during the 11th. Century. (The Liturgical Year: Passiontide and Holy Week: 551.)
Procession to the Font
‘through the midst of the Quire’ suggests that the Procession commences by exiting the West doorway of the Quire. Presumably the Procession would continue west down the Nave to beyond the Font.
The Font was located two bays to the west of the present Font, in the centre of the Nave, in the centre of the third bay from the west.
Evidently at Salisbury Cathedral the new fire was kindled in the second bay from the west, at the junction between the south aisle and the nave, between the two pillars that make up the south arcade. The Priest would be in the Nave just to the north of the fire, while the Thurifer would be in the South aisle, just to the south of the fire.
Such a fire is traditionally kindled from a flint; British Library, Harley MS 2977. a 14th. c. Rituale from Bury St. Edmunds Abbey indicates, ‘. . . accipiat novum ignem de berillo vel de ferro et lapide si sol non apparuerit’ (‘. . . let him take the new light from beryl or from iron and stone if the sun shall not appear’.
Prayer. Domine Deus noster Pater omnipotens
‘omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum’ John 1:9.
‘et sicut illuminasti . . . ‘ appears to be a later addition. It is not found in the earlier Sarum sources, nor is it commonly found elsewhere. It makes the connection between the new fire and the pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21) and it invokes a blessing upon the candle on the spear, which is otherwise not specifically blessed.
Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens
Prayer. Celesti lumine quesumus Domine
The phrases ‘nos participes’ and ‘percipiamus effect/affectu’ suggest that this Prayer was originally intended as a Postcommunion; ‘Celesti lumine’ suggests its use at Epiphany. This prayer is the subject of a detailed analysis by Daniel McCarthy OSB in The Tablet, January 3, 2009, p. 20.
Exorcism. Exorcizo te immundissime spiritus
This exorcism appears to be unique to the Sarum Rite. It does not appear in the Rouen or York sources.
Prayer. Eternam ac justissimam pietatem tuam
‘. . . sicut incensum jecoris piscis . . . liberationem.’ cf. Tob. 6:5-8; 8:2-3.
Prayer. Descendat benedictio tua Domine
‘Dirigatur otatio mea . . . ‘ Ps. 140:2.
‘bonus odor Deo’ 2 Cor. 2:15.
[Proclamation] Exultet jam angelica
As noted in David Hiley, Western Plainchant (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990):51. the Sarum form of the melody appears to be an ornamented form of the simpler melody that is found in Hereford, York, Rouen, and Paris sources, among others.
At (8.) ‘cum Sancto Spiritu’ is not normally found in the Roman Rite. It appears in both the Sarum and York texts, but not in the printed Hereford Missal. It also occurs in the Leofric Missal of the 10th-11th. c. and in a Parisian Missal dated 1481.
At (18.) ‘et nostrum’ is not found in the Roman Rite. It appears in the Sarum and York texts, and in the printed Hereford Missal. It also occurs in the Leofric Missal of the 10th-11th. c. and in the Rouen Missal 1495, but not in the Parisian Missal 1481.
At (21.) ‘et nox ut dies illuminabitur, after Ps. 138:12.
‘et nox illuminatio mea in deliciis meis, Ps. 138:11.
At (26.) many non-Sarum sources have ‘mutuati tamen luminis’. These include Hereford, Rouen, Paris, and Rome.
The Leofric and York Missals omit ‘tamen’.
At (27.) the Paris Missal 1481 and the Hereford Missal have ‘Alitur a liquantibus’.
The Roman Missal has ‘Alitur enim liquantibus
The Leofric Missal, Rouen Missal 1495, and York Missal 1533 are the same as Sarum here.
The Hereford Missal And Rouen Missal 1495 add here the following: ‘O vere et mirabilis apis : cujus nec sexum masculi violant, fetus non quassant, nec filii destruant [‘destruunt’, Rouen} castitatem. Sicut sancta concepit virgo Maria, virgo peperit, et virgo permansit.’
The Leofric Missal has a longer passage: ‘Apes ceteris que subjecta sunt homini animantibus antecellit. Quum sit minima corporis parvitate, ingentes animos angusto versat in pectore, viribus imbecillis, sed fortis ingenio. O vere beata et mirabilia apes. O vere et mirabilis apes, cujus nec sexum masculi violant, fetus non quassant, nec filii destruant castitatem. Sicut sancta concepit virgo Maria, virgo peperit, et virgo permansit.’
At (28.) the Roman Missal, the Paris Missal 1481, and York Missal 1533 have ‘O vere beata nox’. Hereford and Rouen 1495 follows Sarum here.
At (29.) the Roman Missal York 1533, Paris 1481, have ‘Oramus ergo te’. The Leofric Missal the Hereford Missal, and the Rouen Missal 1495 and the same as Sarum here.
At (30.) the Roman Missal has ‘Et in odorem’; the Hereford Missal has ‘accensus’.
At (34.) the Roman Missal 1962 has ‘omnemque clerum’ and ‘una cum beatissimo papa nostro N. et antistite nostro N.’ and adds after ‘gaudiis’, ‘assiduus protectione regere, gubernare, et’ The Paris Missal, 1481, has ‘una cum papa nostro N. et antistite nostro N. necnon et gloriosissimo rege nostro N.’
The York Missal 1533 has ‘in archiepiscopo nostro’.
The Hereford Missal has ‘et antistite nostro N. necnon et Anglorum rege N. et principe nostro N.’
The amended text of the Leofric Missal is ‘papa nostro, et archiepiscopo nostro
atque rege nostro’.
The Rouen Missal, 1495. has ‘et Antistite nostro N. necnon Francorum rege N.’
35. The conclusion appears in the Sarum, Hereford and Rouen Uses. Many other sources, such as Paris 1481, and York 1533, end with the common doxology, ‘Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum’ etc.
Beginning at the reference to the Pope, there is a wide divergence of endings that have been occasioned by historical circumstances. Thomas Forrest Kelley, The Exultet in Southern Italy (New York, Oxford University Press, 1996), provides a great deal of information on the history, style, and variations of the Exultet.
Tract. Cantemus Domino (after Exodus 15:1 (21), 2; Eccl. 51:2; Judith 16:3)
This Tract is also sung at the Vigil of Pentecost.
Tract. Vinea facta est (after Is. 5:1, 5; 34:15; Judges 16:4; Is. 5:2, Matt. 21:33.)
‘Sorec’ is the name of a valley in the Judean Hills. Evidently the reference is due to its etymology, as either ‘fruitless tree’ or ‘special vine’.
Tract. Audite celum et loquar (after Deut. 32:1-4.)
Tract. Sicut cervus desiderat (Ps. 41: 2-4) (‘Sicut’ is Old Roman; ‘apparbeo’ is Gallican; ‘per singuos dies’ is neither)
Litany. Rex sanctorum angelorum
AH-50:#183, p. 242. (Attributed doubtfully to Ratpertus, monk of St. Gall, d. after 884.)
Translation © 2014 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
‘. . . a metrical Litany dating from around the 10th century. It may have begun in St. Gall, but spread quickly throughout the bishoprics of Germany before being approved for church use by Pope Nicholas III. The original is a sort of abbreviated (or sevenfold) litany which also included in some places a variable stanza to a certain local patron saint (such as St. Gall). This Litany was associated with the seven penitential psalms, after which it was sung. Since this usually happened on a vigil, and the Vigils of Easter and Pentecost included the blessing of the font, stanzas 6, 7, and 8 are sung on such occasions where baptizands are present.’ Matthew Carver, Hymnoglypt, April 19, 2014.
Ending as it does on B, this chant appears to fall outside the modal classification system; however, the Verse endings on G, as well as the extent of the range to low D would justify labeling it Mode VIII.
Adult baptism on the Easter Vigil was a very rare event during the middle ages, seeing that infant baptism was practised pretty much universally.
A metrical translation by Pearson (omitting verses 6-8) appears in The Sarum Missal in English:170. Another translation,’Thou the holy angels’ King’ (again omitting verses 6-8) appears in Warren’s Sarum Missal I:284. Although it is in rhyme it does not follow the metre of the original.
The liturgy continues with the Mass. See the Missal.
The Procession and Mass on Easter Day has been edited by Terence Bailey in W Thomas Marrocco and Nicholas Sandon, eds., The Oxford Anthology of Medieval Music (London: Oxford University Press, 1977): 22-47.
Ant. Crux fidelis
Invention of the Cross, May 3
Ant, O crux gloriosa
Resp. O crux gloriosa
Saint Mary Magdalene, July 22
Resp. O felix sacrorum
Saint Anne, July 26
Beata virgo virginum
Saint Katharine, November 25
R Virgo. R O mater
V. Virgo mater ecclesie