Companion to D: Toni communes et appendices

2*
Before Lauds.
Note the observance of a final accent on the Hebrew word, ‘Syon’. In the English editions Hebrew words are treated with English pronunciation.

4*
Invitatory Psalm Tones.
The Invitatory Tones are used with the Invitatory Antiphons as indicated in the Breviary. The verses are sung by one, two, three, or four, depending upon the feria or feast. The repetition of the Invitatory Antiphon follows the indications given here (‘Integrum’ and ‘Altera’), except during Passiontide, when the ‘Gloria Patri.’ Verse is omitted. Then the repetitions of the Antiphon begin with the ‘Altera’ and thus alternate with ‘Integrum’ through to the end. This will affect Tones IV.i. and VI.iii.

It is a characteristic of the Venite Tones that the inflection above the reciting note generally begins on an unaccented syllable and continues with a subsequent accented syllable, in the manner of an anticipation.

24*
Tone IV.v is similar to the tone used for Te Deum laudamus.  This Tone is also used for the Translation of St. Osmund.

35*
Tone VI.iii is related to that provided by Solesmes for the Office of the Dead (LU:1779.) It is also related to Liber Hymnarius Tone VI (p. 149), but with the reciting tone elevated by one step. Being the simplest of the Venite Tones, it is probably also one of the oldest.

47*
Psalm Tones
The tables of Psalm-Tones are compiled on the basis of the ‘Tonale secundum usum Sarum et universalis ecclesie’, The Use of Sarum, vol. 2 ed. Walter H. Frere (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1901: i-lxxiv, and the ‘Toni’ found in the Sarum Antiphonale (1520): 68v-70v.

Regarding the setting of extra unaccented syllables at the mediations and endings, indicated in the tables by the hollow neumes, there is little evidence in the Sarum sources that demonstrates an accepted practice. What evidence there is is limited to an occasional psalm-verse in the tonaries, and the fully noted psalms and canticles that employ the Tonus Peregrinus. Later indications for singing these extra unaccented syllables appear in Thomas Helmore, A Manual of Plainsong, (London: Novello, 1850), new edition, H. B. Briggs and Walter H. Frere (London: Novello, 1902); George Herbert Palmer, The Sarum Psalter (London: George Bell & Sons, 1894; New Edition, Wantage: S. Mary’s Convent, 1963), and Charles Winfred Douglas, The Plainsong Psalter (New York: H.W. Gray, 1932). However, these sources do not always agree, nor do they indicate their sources. The editions by the monks of Solesmes (e.g. Liber usualis, Tournai: Desclkee, 1961) indicate another method of treating the unstressed syllables in western psalmody.

In this edition the setting of extra unaccented syllables usually follows the practice of the above sources to the extent that they are in agreement.  In cases of disagreement a choice has been made.  We need not presume that performance practice was consistent in ancient times. Nevertheless this edition attempts at consistency for the sake of uniformity in performance. Performers are of course at liberty to interpret the unaccented syllables as they see fit.

The Hebrew words Abraham, David, Amen, and Israel typically have an accent on final syllable in Sarum Latin. It is my view that only in such cases should the abrupt form be used in a mediation, and then only in the Latin; but not in English, where the Hebrew words adopt English accents.

In pointing the Sarum Psalter in English, I have attempted to maintain a pattern that mirrors the Latin use of accents.

Solemn Tones
Solemn tones are used only for Benedictus and Magnificat.
In solemn tones, I interpret the mediation as having two accents with a preparatory note. In these tones the intonation is therefore sometimes omitted at the Gloria Patri.
The location of inflection in the second part is sometimes editorial.
It is interesting to note that the beginning of Magnificat uses the intonation and omits the mediation, whereas the normal practice throughout the Psalter is to omit the intonation and keep the mediation, or to use the abrupt mediation if necessary. The effect here seems to be to create a single musical phrase ‘Magnificat anima mea Dominum’ using the intonation and the final ending.

Psalm Tones in English
In pointing the English editions for singing I have adopted the method set forth by G. H. Palmer in The Sarum Psalter. whereby the beginning of the melodic inflection for the mediation and ending of each tone is indicated by the figures  through  placed above the corresponding syllables of the psalms. This is the only system of pointing in current use that provides for the singing of any psalm or canticle to any of the psalm-tones. However, I have by no means adopted Palmer’s pointing. Rather, the pointing style used in this edition leans much more towards that of C. Winfred Douglas, as found in The Plainsong Psalter.
It should perhaps be noted that the accentual patterns of English differ from those of Latin. English is characterized by a range of stresses from strong through to weak; English is apt to have consecutive stresses; and English exhibits some flexibility in its accents. For example, ‘unto’ can be stressed on either the first or the second syllable. Performers are of course at liberty to use any pointing method they may prefer.

I have found the abrupt intonations to be unnecessary in the English Psalter. I treat Hebrew words in their anglicized form, and thus I also consider the abrupt mediation to be unnecessary.

Pointing the Psalms in English.
The following is a detailed discussion of the pointing that has been adopted in the English versions of the Psalter.  This section also introduces a new method of pointing the Psalms that is intended to give a cleaner and simpler look to the page. NOTE: This new method will begin to be employed in October 2015.

A New Method of Pointing the Psalms.
The symbols used in this new method are: ^ ‘ . ~ o. They appear above the relevant syllables of the text.  These are intended to replace G.H. Palmer’s numbering system with a simpler, less cluttered appearance that reflects the accent structure in a visual way.  However, to make use of them, an understanding of the structure of the Psalm-Tones in necessary.

‘  indicates the final accented syllable that will be used in Mediations and Endings of one accent (e.g. Mediation of Tone I).  It is also normally used to indicate the second accent in Mediations and Endings of two accents (e.g. Tone VII).

^ indicates the first accent in Mediations and Endings of two accents (e.g. Tone VII).

.   .   is used to indicate the two syllables preparatory to the final accent in the Ending.  Both dots are used in connection with endings of two preparatory syllables (e.g. Tone I).  Only the second dot is used in connection with endings of one preparatory syllable (e.g. Tone II).

~ indicates the commencement of the Mediation of Tone IV, and Endings i through v of the same Tone, as well as Ending vi. of Tone III.

o is used to indicate the location of the additional inflection found in the second phrase of Solemn Tones 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8.

The above symbols have been incorporated into the new edition of the English performing Psalter.

Accent Patterns in the English Psalter.
The following discussion, speaking of accent more generally, uses the familiar symbols / and – to indicate strong and weak syllables.
This discussion treats first the Mediations, and then the Endings.

The Mediation.

Tones 1 and 6.
In these cases the inflection is not related to the accentual pattern; it always occurs on the penultimate syllable.

Tones 2, 5, and 8.
In the ideal accentual pattern the text phrase will end [/ -] or [/ – -]; the inflection will be on the final accented syllable.
. . . in the way of sínners : [Ps. 1:1]
. . . planted by the wáter-side : [Ps. 1:3]
Cases of [/ /]are treated as if they were [/ -].
. . . and so ye perish from the ríght way : [Ps. 2:12]
. . . O Lord, with my whóle heart : [Ps 9:1]
However a phrase ending [- /] goes against the natural pattern of the musical inflection. Palmer’s method is to employ the ‘abrupt’ mediation, in which the inflection comes on the final syllable, with no return to the reciting note until the beginning of the following phrase. While this practice is occasionally found in the Sarum sources in relation to the setting of Hebrew words, such as ‘Israel’, there is no evidence of it being applied to the Latin. In this edition the choice has been made to avoid this practice. Instead the musical inflection is located in relation to the accent-pattern of the preceding syllables. In the case of [/ – /], the inflection will be on the antepenult; [/ – /] is treated as [/ – -].
. . . Be wise now therefore, Ó ye kings : [Ps. 2:10]
In the case of [- – /] some interpretation is necessary. First it is important to try to determine whether one of the two weak syllables is stronger than the other. If the first of the two weak syllables is stronger than the second, then the interpretation will be as if it were [/ – -].
. . . in the law óf the Lord : [Ps. 1:2]
If the second of the two weak syllables is stronger than the first, then the interpretation will be as if it were [- / -].
. . . that say of mý soul : [Ps, 3:2]
. . . no man rememberéth thee : [Ps. 6:5]
In the case of [/ / -] the musical inflection will fall on the penult.
. . . shall be confounded and sore véxed : [Ps. 6:10]
If there is no distinction of weight between the two unaccented syllables, then it is helpful to evaluate the accents of the previous syllables as well. If a strong accent falls on the fourth last syllable [/ – – /] and there is no distinction of weight between the two unaccented syllables, then the inflection will fall on the penultimate syllable as the ‘natural’ location.
. . . shall láugh them tó scorn : [Ps. 2:4]
. . . call upon the Lórd with mý voice : [Ps. 3:4]
. . . the ungodly cóme to án end : [Ps. 7: 9]
. . . are come to a perpétuál end : [Ps. 9:6]
Occasionally a text phrase will end with three unaccented syllables [/ – – -]. The musical inflection will fall on the penult.
. . . they are altogether become abómináble : [Ps. 14:4]
If a strong accent falls on the fifth last syllable [/ – – – /], this will tend to make the middle of the three unaccented syllables feel strong as in a metrical alternation of strong and weak.
. . . it ís not só with them : [Ps. 1:5]
. . . and the físhes óf the sea : [Ps, 8:8]
However, this is not always the best choice; context may lead to another interpretation:
. . . the instruments óf death : [Ps. 7:14]
If a strong accent falls on the sixth last syllable [/ – – – – /], this will tend to make the third of the unaccented syllables feel strong:
. . . and to the Fáther, and tó the Son :
. . . give séntence with mé O Lord : [Ps. 7:8]

Certain polysyllabic words are not strongly defined by accent, and instead accommodate to the surrounding text. For example, while ‘unto’ naturally takes an accent on the first syllable, it can instead take an accent on the second syllable:
. . . belóngeth untó the Lord : [Ps. 3:8]
Another example is the word ‘into’.

In any case, the musical inflection of the mediation for tones 2, 5, and 8 will always be on either the penult or the antepenult.

Tone 4 always corresponds to the pattern of Tones 2, 5, and 8, but with two preparatory syllables.

Tones 3 and 7.
The mediation of Tones 3 and 7 is of two accents. It may perhaps be better to think of these as tones that coincide with the penultimate accent of the text phrase. These two mediations always agree with one another.

In the simplest form there will be two unambiguous accented syllables concluding the phrase in the pattern [/ – / -]:
. . . nor stood in the wáy of sínners : [Ps. 1:1]
. . . furiously ráge togéther : [Ps. 2:1]
Expansions of this basic pattern accommodate an additional weak syllable after one or both of the accents, giving [/ – – / -],
. . . not be able to stánd in the júdgement : [Ps. 1:6]
. . . knoweth the wáy of the ríghteous : [Ps. 1:7]
[/ – / – -],
. . . planted bý the wáter-side : [Ps. 1:3]
. . . it ís not só with them : [Ps. 1:5]
and [/ – – / – -].
. . . Yét have I sét my King : [Ps. 2:6]
. . . are they incréased that tróuble me : [Ps. 3:1]
In many cases the accent pattern of the text will be [/ – – /]. Here the norm will be to follow the first accent but to alter the second. This does not mean that the penult will now be accented, but only that the associated note will fall on that syllable thus [/ – (/) -]:
. . . the láw of the Lord : [Ps. 1:2]
. . . in heaven shall láugh them to scorn : [Ps. 2:4]
In cases where there are two accents in a row in the penult and antepenult positions, the norm, as above, will be that the second accent is respected and the first is ignored. This means that cases such as [/ – – / / -] will in fact be interpreted as [/ – (/) – / -]:
. . . My soul álso ís sore tróubled : [Ps. 6:1]
. . . shall be confóunded, ánd sore véxed : [Ps. 6:10]
However, where there are two accents in a row on the third last and fourth last syllables [/ / – /] or [/ / – – ], the interpretation will typically be [/ – (/) -]:
. . . Why standest thou so fár off, Ó Lord : [Ps. 9:21]
As for the above Tones, where there are three or more unaccented syllables in succession, an accent will be assumed, as in the following:
. . . While mine énemíes are dríven back : [Ps. 9:3] (accent on ‘míes’ is added.)

It should be noted, however, that the English language has varied degrees of emphasis on its accents. In cases where two accents occur in direct succession the context will help to determine the precedence; in some cases the conclusion can only be subjective:
. . . He hath said in his heart, Tush, God háth forgótten :
or . . . He hath said in his heart, Tush, Gód hath forgótten : [Ps. 9:32]

Endings:

Tones 1, 6, and 8 function as a group with one accent and two preparatory syllables; Tone 4 always begins one syllable earlier; Tones 2 and 3 begin one syllable later. Tones 5 and 7 function as a separate group with two accents.

Tones 1, 6, and 8:
The melodic accent will always fall on the penultimate or the antepenultimate syllable. The simplest use of these Tones is when the penult is accented. Both [/ – / -] and [- – / -] will be set the same way, with the inflexion beginning on the fourth syllable from the end.
. . . and hath not sat in the seat of the scórnful. [Ps. 1:1]
. . . bring forth his fruit in due séason. [Ps. 1:3]
Patterns such as [/ – / /] and [/- – / /]will be treated in the same way:
. . . the people imagine a váin thing ? [Ps. 2:1]
. . . in the work of his ówn hands. [Ps. 9:16]
[/ – – -] will also be treated the same way [/ – (/) -]:
. . . against the persecútors. [Ps. 7:14]
In [/ – / – -] and [- – / – -], when the antepenult is accented, the same principle will apply, and the inflexion will begin on the fifth syllable from the end.
. . . and cast away their córds from us. [Ps. 2:3]
. . . this day have I begótten thee. [Ps. 2:7]
. . . turned back, and put to shame súddenly. [Ps. 6:10]
The same treatment is used when in the same patterns the final syllable is accented [/ – / – /] and [- – / – /]:
. . . ye that are judges óf the earth. [Ps. 2:10]
. . . world without énd. Amen.
In [/ / – -] the the musical accent will typically be on the antpenult:
. . . will he exercise himself dáy and night. [Ps. 1:2]
. . . away from the face óf the earth. [Ps. 1:5]
When the accent pattern of the text concludes [/ – – /] a determination must be made as to whether the penult or the antepenult will be assigned the accent of the melodic ending (it will typically be the antepenult so as separate the melodic accent from the text accent on the final syllable):
. . . There is no help for him ín his God. [Ps. 3:2]
. . . and the lifter up óf my head. [Ps. 3:3]
but
. . . that thou visitést him ? [Ps. 8:4]
. . . all thy marvellóus works. [Ps. 9:1]
. . . when he getteth him into hís net. [Ps. 9:30]
[/ – – – /] will typically interpolate a musical accent on the antepenult:
. . . their memorial is perishéd with them. [Ps. 9:6]
. . . for thou beholdest ungodlinéss and wrong. [Ps. 9:35]

Tones 5 and 7:
The following text accents will all naturally be suited to the endings of Tones 5 and 7. (a) [/ – / -] (b) [/ – – / – ] (c) [/ – / – -](d) [/ – – / – – ]
(a)  . . . whatsoever he doeth, ít shall prósper. [Ps. 1:4]
. . . congregation óf the ríghteous. [Ps. 1:6]
(b) . . . sat in the séat of the scórnful. [Ps. 1:1]
. . . bring forth his frúit in due séason. [Ps. 1:3]
(c) . . . and cast awáy their córds from us. [Ps. 2:3]
. . . rejoice unto hím with réverence. [Ps. 2:11]
(d) . . . and the lífter up óf my head. [Ps. 3:3]
. . . and he heard me óut of his hóly hill. [Ps. 3:4]
In [/ – / /] and [/ – – / / ] the musical accents will interpret the final syllable as weak:
. . . the people imágine a váin thing ? [Ps. 2:1]
. . . wickedness shall fáll on his ówn pate. [Ps. 7:17]
The text pattern [/ – – /] will often be interpreted with musical accents as [/ – (/) -]:
. . . away from the fáce of thé earth. [Ps. 1:5]
. . . and water my cóuch with mý tears. [Ps. 6:6]
The text pattern [/ – / / – – ] will typically be resolved by omitting the accent on the fourth last syllable:
. . . will he exercíse himself dáy and night. [Ps. 1:2]
When the final three syllables are in the form [/ – /] the antepenult will normally be treated as the final musical accent:
. . . ye that are júdges óf the earth. [Ps. 2:10]
. . . all they that pút their trúst in him. [Ps. 2:12]
In cases such as the following [/ / – /] the context must determine whether the final musical accent is on the penult =[/ – (/) -] or on the antepenult = [/ – / – -] or [/ – – / – -].
. . . There is no hélp for him ín his God. [Ps. 3:2]
. . . and who will give thee thánks in thé pit ? [Ps. 6:5]
Where there are three unaccented syllables between the accents a musical accent will normally be interpolated on the middle syllable:
. . . thou has broken the teeth of thé ungódly. [Ps. 3:7]

Benedictus
In the Solemn Forms (Tones 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8) the Saint Dunstan Plainsong Psalter (2002) places some of the inflections on different syllables.  Presumably this style originates in the work of Winfred Douglas The Canticles at Matins : Pointed for Chanting (New York: H.W. Gray Co.: [1916]). I have not yet seen this book.

Magnificat
In English the first two Verses are combined into one since the first Verse itself is too short to accommodate the Psalm-tone.
As indicated in the English Performing Edition, The Book of Common Prayer, since its inception, has divided Verse 2 into two verses.
In The Canadian Psalter, Plainsong Edition:52 ff., Healey Willan divides Verse 8 into two parts, thus:
[8a] He remembering his mercy : hath holpen his servant Israel :
[8b] As he promised to our forefathers : Abraham and his seed for ever.
This follows the divisions of The Book of Common Prayer (Canada) 1962:21. and appears to extend at least as far back as The Book of Common Praise (Canada) 1938):894. although it does not appear in this form in The Book of Common Prayer (Canada) 1918.  (This form does follow KJV, although the text is different.) It may well be that this change was brought in by Willan himself in the 1920s or even earlier.

Tone I
The mediation is a lower inflection on the penultimate syllable, regardless of stress. (Tone VI follows the same pattern.) This mediation differs from the Solesmes mediation of two accents.
The ending is of one accent with two preparatory notes.  An additional unstressed syllable is sung on G (endings i-vii, ix) or D (ending viii).
There is an abbreviated form of intonation for use with short opening verses.

49*
Tone II
The mediation is of one accent. An additional unstressed syllable is sung on the reciting note. A Hebrew word accented on the final syllable ( such as Israél) is sung with an abrupt mediation.
The ending is of one accent with one or two preparartory neumes. An additional unstressed syllable is sung on the same pitch as the accent. (The Solesmes method places an additional unstressed syllable on the succeeding pitch.)
Frequently the Sarum sources indicate a liquescent Cd on the ending. This may be indicative of the use such a figure when the text accommodates it. Compare the Antiphonale Monasticum (Solesmes, 1934), where the ending takes the accented neume CD.

51*
Tone III
The mediation is of two accents. An additional unstressed syllable following the first accent will be on the lower note (C). For the second accent the inflection is placed on the penultimate syllable, regardless of the placement of the accent (compare Tone I, and contrast Tone VII).
The ending is of one accent with one, two, or three preparatory neumes. An additional unstressed syllable will fall on G in endings i, ii, and vi, and on C in endings iv and v. (For ending iv Douglas places the additional unstressed syllable on B.) In ending iii an additional unstressed syllable will cause the neume GFE to be broken into G FE (compare Tone IV, endings i, ii, and iii.)
There is an abbreviated form of intonation for short initial verses.

54*
Tone IV
The mediation is of one accent with two preparatory notes. An additional unstressed syllable will be on the reciting note. A Hebrew word accented on the final syllable is sung with an abrupt mediation.
The ending is of one accent with three preparatory neumes, or of one accent with no preparatory neumes. In endings i, ii and iii an additional unstressed syllable will cause the neume GFE to be broken into G FE (compare Tone III, ending iii.) In endings iv and v an additional unstressed syllable will anticipate the first pitch of the succeeding neume. (Douglas indicates that for ending v an additional unstressed syllable will repeat the pitch of the stressed syllable.) In ending vi the inflection falls on the final syllable, regardless of accent. (Douglas and Solesmes place the inflection on the syllable following the accented syllable.) In endings vii and ix the inflection falls on the penultimate syllable regardless of accent (compare Tone I, mediation). (Helmore, and Briggs and Frere, place ths inflection on the accent.) In ending viii an additional unstressed syllable falls on the succeeding pitch.
Tone IV is normally transposed up a fourth when endings iv an v are used.  This accommodates both B-natural and B-flat which appear in many of the antiphons associated with these endings.

55*
Editors of the English chant stemming from Thomas Helmore, (A Manual of Plainsong:xliv), omit the inflection in the second half of the Solemn Form of Tone IV. (see G. H. Palmer, The Sarum Psalter:276, 278, Winfred Douglas, The Canticles at Evensong, Together with the Office Responses and a Table of Psalm-Tones:28-29, and Saint Dunstan’s Plainsong Psalter:408.)

57*
Tone V
The mediation is of one accent. An additional unstressed syllable will fall on the reciting note.  A Hebrew word accented on the final syllable is sung with an abrupt mediation.
The ending is of one or two accents. In endings i, and ii an additional weak syllable falls on the succeeding pitch. (Palmer and Douglas indicate that after the first accent an additional unaccented syllable takes the (passing) note C, but I have not yet seen evidence to support this view.) Ending iii has two preparatory notes; an additional unaccented syllable takes the pitch of the following note.

58*
Tone VI
The normal mediation is a lower inflection on the penultimate syllable, regardless of stress. Tone I follows the same pattern. Another mediation is also found on occasion.  This mediation, like the Solesmes form, has two accents in the mediation, and follows the pattern of Tone VII.
The ending is of one accent with two preparatory neumes. An additional unaccented syllable will fall on the succeeding pitch. Sarum sources frequently indicate the liquescent Gf on the penultimate note; this may be indicative of a performance practice.
Tone VI is sometimes transposed up a fifth.  This accommodates B-flat as well as B-natural in antiphons associated with Tone VI.

60*
Tone VII
The mediation is of two accents. An additional unaccented syllable after the first accent will be on the following pitch; an additional unaccented syllable after the second accent repeats the pitch of that accent (contrast Tone III).
There is an abrupt form of the intonation for short initial verses.
The ending is of two accents. An additional unaccented syllable after the first accent will be on the following pitch; an additional unaccented syllable after the second accent repeats the pitch of the accent. (Douglas indicates that in ending iii an unaccented syllable after the second accent falls on the succeeding note. The Sarum Tonary indicates both varieties.)
Tone VII is occasionally transposed up a fourth.  This transposition accommodated B-natural in some antiphons.

64*
Tone VIII
The mediation is of one accent. An additional unstressed syllable will fall on the reciting note.  A Hebrew word accented on the final syllable is sung with an abrupt mediation.
The ending is of one accent with two preparatory neumes. An additional unstressed syllable will take the pitch of the succeeding note.

66*
Tonus Peregrinus
The mediant is of one accent. An additional unstressed syllable will fall on the succeeding pitch. (The Sarum Tonary and the Sarum Antiphonale 1519-1520 exhibit some inconsistency here.)
The ending is of one accent with two preparatory notes. An additional unaccented syllable will repeat the pitch of the accented note.

80*
Neume.
It is to be regretted that the ‘Neume’ are seldom employed in chanting today. They serve to conclude groups of Psalms at the Offices of Matins, Lauds, and Vespers, and to embellish the conclusions of the most significant elements of Lauds, Prime, and Vespers.
Here the Neume are presented in the context of phrases that provide suitable modal contexts. Each text serves as a mnemonic device for its associated Mode. Note doubt these phrases were commonly used in teaching the basics of modal theory.

Mode I. (Mat. 6:33)

Mode II. (Mat. 22:39)

Mode III. (Luke 24:21)

Mode IV. (Mat. 14:25)

Mode V. (after Mat. 25:10)

Mode VI. (after John 4:6)

Mode VII. (after Apoc. 4:5)

Mode VIII. (after Mat 5:3 ff.)

89*
Tone for the Versicles at Matins.
This is the same Tone as is used at Vespers, at Compline, and at Lauds.
(Note that a different Tone is used at the Office of the Dead.)

Before the Lessons at Matins.
The ‘Pater noster’ and ‘Ave Maria’ are to be said entirely before the verse ‘Et ne nos’ is begun. Typically the short form of ‘Ave Maria’, concluding ‘et benedíctus fructus ventris tui Jesus Christus. Amen.’ would be used. However, the 1531 Breviary, unusually, includes the later addition ‘Sancta María mater Dei ora pro nobis peccatóribus nunc et in hora mortis. Amen.’

90*
At the Blessings before the Lessons.
The various blessings that are used are found in Volume A-ii, pages XXX-XXXII.

When the Bishop shall read the Ninth Lesson.
Although the Bishop seeks a blessing, ‘Jube domine’, there is no more senior person present to give the blessing. Thus the Choir instead responds, ‘Ora pro nobis pater.’

91*
Tone for the Lessons.
Each sentence ends with a cadence. The normal cadence is C-A. When the final syllable is strong (oxytonic; in Latin a single syllable word), the cadence is C-A-B (or C-A-A-B). The final cadence is C-F or C-F-F, depending on the accent structure.
When the Lesson is ended the Choir does not respond ‘Deo gratias’ as occurs inthe Chapter.
Note the observance of a final accent on the Hebrew word, ‘Juda’. In the English editions Hebrew words are set according to English pronunciation.

92*
Tone for the Chapter.
This is essentially the same as the Tone for the Lessons. Here the Choir does respond ‘Deo gratias’.

93*
Verses of the Responsories.
These are to be used when indicated in the Temporale or Sanctorale. In some cases, in particular those more recently composed, proper melodies appear in their places.
There appears to be no warrant in the Sarum tradition for adding ‘Alleluya’ to the Responsories in Eastertide, as is the practice in Nocturnale Romanum: LXXIX.
A detailed analysis of these melodies appears in W. H. Frere, ‘Disseration and Analytical Index’, Antiphonale Sarisburiense: 3-5.

95*
Tone of the Versicle at Vespers, at Compline, and at Lauds.
These are the same as that for Matins.
“The R. was said in silence according to Salisbury Use, but, if sung, it should be inflected in the same manner as the V., and invariably on the final syllable.” (G.H. Palmer, The Order of Vespers:13**.)
While one might presume that in Eastertide the ‘Alleluya’ would be added both to the Versicle and to the (silent) Response, US-I:274. indicates that the ‘Alleluya’ is only added to the (silent) response.

96*
Tone of the Versicles at the Hours of the Day.
The Hours are Prime, Terce, Sext, and None.
When the final syllable is strong (oxytonic; in Latin a single syllable word), the cadence is C-A-B (or C-A-A-B).

Tone for the Prayers.
There are two melodies for ‘Dominus vobiscum’; the second appears to be an earlier melodic form. If used, it should be used at all other corresponding places where ‘Dominus vobiscum’ appears.
The Tone for the Prayer has only a single inflection, at the end.

100*
Versicle at the Memorial.
This is the same as the Tone of the Versicle at the Little Hours.

Prayer at the Memorial.
While the Prayer of the Hour itself ends with a semi-tone inflection, CB-B, the Prayer of the Memorials concludes with the third, C-A.

102*
Benedicamus Domino.
Besides the simple form (the first one on 100*), a considerable number of elaborate melodic phrases are provided for use when the Benedicamus is sung by two. Many, but not all of these melodies duplicate melodies found in the Graduale, as indicated by the marginal figures in parentheses.
The second ‘Benedicamus Domino’ appears to be a variant.
The third ‘Benedicamus Domino’ is an older form, which should be used with the older form of ‘Dominus vobiscum’ on p. 97*.

107*
The ‘Benedicamus’ in Mode IV. is reminiscent of the hymn-tune ‘A solus ortus cardine’ (above). If it is based on this melody, the conclusion is varied and extended to accomodate the ‘Alleluya’.

D-5: Appendix: Supplements, Restorations, and Additions.

Psalter

The Image of the Saviour

Common of a Matron (non-Sarum)
This Office is different from the Office ‘Non virginum’ found in the Breviarium Romanum 1529 and 1568: 991.

Temporale

St. Thomas

Octave of St. Thomas

Septuagesima

Quinquagesima

Rubrice ante institutionem festum Corporis Christi

 

Sanctorale

December 8: The Conception of Blessed Mary
At First Vespers
Ant. Gaude mater ecclesia

Chapter. Dominus possedit me

Prayer. Deus ineffabilis misericordie

At Sext
Chapter. Non dum fontes aquarum

At None
Chapter. Et delectabar per singulos dies

March 1: Saint David
Neither this Office nor the Commemoration that follows is proper to Sarum. They are included here because the single source, Aberyswyth, National Library of Wales, MS 20145 E, in most respects follows the Sarum Use. This Office would presumably be used at St. David’s Cathedral in Wales, within the Diocese, and also at other churches named for the saint. The text is in rhyme and metre throughout. The music is to a great extent arranged and adapted from the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury. Owain Tudor Edwards, Matins, Lauds and Vespers for St. David’s Day (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1990) provides a complete transcription (in modern notation) and commentary on this Office. Edwards (p. 159) also draws attention to certain similarities of this office to that of St. Dominic, canonized in 1234. See also Andrew Hughes, ‘British Rhymed Offices’, Susan Rankin and David Hiley, eds., Music in the Medieval English Liturgy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993): 258-260. See also Gillian Lander, ‘Sources of Inspiration for the composer-poet of the Office for St David of Wales found in the Office for St Thomas Becket: An examination of these Offices in the Penpont Antiphonal MS 20541E’ B. Mus. diss., Auckland Unviersity, 2011.

At First Vespers
Ant. O desiderabilis
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp7pp x 3, and rhyme ab ab ab.
This Antiphon is closely related to ‘O Pastor eterne’ for the Feast of St. Nicholas {44}.

Resp. Pastor David
This Responsory is in metre, 4p4p7pp x 3, and rhyme, aab ccb ddb. The Verse is 6pp6p x 2, ab ab.
According to Owain Tudor Edwards (Matins, Lauds, and Vespers for St. David’s Day:83), this Responsory is adapted from the Responsory ‘Te sanctum Dominum’ {1424}, {1573}.

Ant. Dominum magnificavit
This Antiphon is in metre, 8p7pp x 3, and rhyme ab ab ab.
The music appears to be unique to this office.

At Matins
Invit. In sancti David presulis memoria
This Invitatory is in metre, 12pp 11pp, and rhyme a a.
This Invitatory is based on ‘Assunt Thome martyris’, 441, and on ‘Vincentum mundum’ {173}.

Invit. In sancti David memoria
This Invitatory is in metre, 9pp 9pp, and rhyme a a.
It is most unusual that an Office be provided with two Invitatories such as occurs here.

The Antiphons at Matins are in modal order.

Ant. Vir beatus impiorum
This Antiphon is in metre, 8p7pp x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
The music appears to be unique to this office.

Ant. In monte constituit Christus
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Monachus sub clerico’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 442.

Ant. Hostibus ecclesie
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Cultor agri Domini’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 442.

The Responsories are in modal order, except for the third, which is in Mode V, and the fifth, which is in Mode VI.

Resp. Tractanti Patricio
This Responsory is in metre, 7pp6p x 3, and rhyme, ab ab ab. The Verse is 7pp6p x 2, cd cd.
Parts of this Responsory are based on ‘Studens livor’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 444.

Resp. Studens David
This Responsory is in metre, 10pp x 3, and rhyme, a a a. The Verse is 10pp x 2, b b.
This Responsory is based on ‘Thomas manum mittit’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 445.

Resp. Sciens quod in Petri
This Responsory is in metre, 8p7pp x3, and rhyme, ab ab ab. The Verse is 7pp7pp7pp, ccb.
The music appears to be unique to this office.

Ant. Invocantis exaudivit cordis
This Antiphon is in metre, 8p7pp x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Nec in agnos’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 446.

Ant. Mane David astitit
This Antiphon is in metre, 8p7pp x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Exulat vir optimus’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 447.

Ant. Nomen admirabile David
This Antiphon is in metre, 8p7pp x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Exulantis predia’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 447.

Resp. Malens in penuria
This Responsory is in metre, 7pp7pp x 3, and rhyme, ab ab ab. The Verse is 7pp7pp7pp, ccb.
Owain Tudor Edwards (Matins, Lauds, and Vespers for St. David’s Day:88) notes that this Responsory is modelled on the Responsory ‘Ferro pressos’ of the monastic office of St Thomas of Canterbury, appearing as the 9th Responsory in the York Use.

Resp. Stans in orbis extito
This Responsory is in metre, 7pp7pp7pp x2, and rhyme, aab, ccb. The Verse is 8p6p x2, de de.
This Responsory is based on ‘Ex summa rerum’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 448. Although this Respnonsory is in Mode VI, its opening gesture is that of Mode V.

Resp. David iste miticis
This Responsory is in metre, 7p6p x3 (irregular), and rhyme, ab cb cb. The Verse is 6pp6pp x2, de de.
This Responsory is based on ‘Novis fulget’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 456.

Ant. Christi tabernaculum
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Sathane satellites’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 452.

Ant. Ante vitam petiit
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x 2, and rhyme ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Strictis Thomas ensibus’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 453.

Ant. Manibus innocuis
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x 3, and rhyme ab ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Felix locus’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 453.

Resp. Britonis hersiarche
This Responsory is in metre, 8p7pp x3, and rhyme, ab ab ab. The Verse is 7pp6p x2, cd cd.
This Responsory is based on ‘Mundi florem’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 450.

Resp. Jugi Christi passionis
This Responsory is in metre, 8p7pp x3, and rhyme, ab ab ab. The Verse is 7pp6p x2, cd cd.
This Responsory is based on ‘Christi Jesu per Thome’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 451.

Resp. Lucescente novo mane diei
This Responsory is in metre, 8p7pp x3, and rhyme, ab ab ab. The Verse is 8p7pp, cb.
This Responsory is based on ‘Christi Jesu bone per Thome’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 457.

Prose. Panis arctus aqua brevis
This Prose is in metre, 8p7pp x8, each line ends with ‘-io’.
The melody is taken from the Prose ‘Sospitati dedit’ for St. Nicholas, {65}.

At Lauds
Ant. Dictus est Patricio
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x2, and rhyme, ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Granum cadit’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 458.
The first five Antiphons at Lauds are in modal order, but with omissions: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8.

Ant. Instuctoris oculos fletu
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x2, and rhyme, ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Totus orbis’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 458.

Ant. Missis ultro feminis sanctos
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x2, and rhyme, ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Aqua Thome’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 458.

Ant. Toxicate torte panis
This Antiphon is in metre, 8p6p x2, and rhyme, ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Ad Thome memoriam’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 459.

Ant. Ut attendat populus
This Antiphon is in metre, 7pp6p x2, and rhyme, ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Tu per Thome’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 459.

Ant. Occidentem visitavit
This Antiphon is in metre, 8p7pp x4, and rhyme, ab ab ab ab.
This Antiphon is adapted from ‘Opem nobis’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 461.

At Vespers
Ant. O pie [Ope] juva celitus
This Antiphon is in metre, 8pp6p, 7pp6p x3, and rhyme, ab ab ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Salve Thoma virga justicie’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 463.

In the Commemoration of Blessed David.
At Matins (Lauds)
Ant. Gloriose presul Christi David

At Vespers
Ant. Pater horam visita
This Antiphon is in metre, 7p6pp x2, and rhyme, ab ab.
This Antiphon is based on ‘Strictis Thomas ensibus’ for the Feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 453.

May 20. St. Ethelbert
Ethelbert, (d. May 20, 794, Hertfordshire), was King of East Anglia. His shrine was at Hereford Cathedral. Ethelbert and the Blessed Virgin are patrons of Hereford Cathedral.

Prayer. Deus omnium regnorum institutor

July 16: The Translation of Saint Osmund

First Vespers
Ant. Suscipe cum gaudio.
The is chant adapted from Granum cadit, first Antiphon at Lauds of the Feast of St. Thomas Becket.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Ant. Confessoris Dominum
The chant is adapted from Sol in tabernaculo, second Antiphon at Matins of the Feast of the Visitation.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Ant. Exit ejus spiritus
The chant is adapted from Cepit terra Domini, third Antiphon at Matins of the Feast of the Visitation. See also Cultor agri, third Antiphon at Matins of the Feast of St. Thomas Becket.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Ant. Iste domum Domini
The chant is adapted from Stat in regis dextera, fourth Antiphon at Matins of the Feast of the Visitation. See also Nec in agnos, fourth Antiphon at Matins of the Feast of St. Thomas Becket.

Ant. Lauda Syon Dominum
The chant is adapted from Vinctus ferro, fifth Antiphon at Matins of the Feast of St. Edmund.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

The Commemoration of Saint Osmund
At Vespers
Ant. Pastor pius
The chant is adapted from Pastor cesus, from the Memorial of St. Thomas Becket, 438. (The Osmund text seems to some extent based on the Thomas text.)
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

At Lauds
Ant. Bone Jesu Osmundi meritis
The chant is adapted from Opem nobis, the Antiphon to the Benedictus at Lauds on the Feast of St. Thomas Becket.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

August 5: Mary ad Nives (Mary of the Snows)

At Lauds
1 Ant. Dum rex esset

2 Ant. Leva ejus sub capite meo

4 Ant. Jam hyems transiit

August 6: The Transfiguration
First Vespers
Hymn. Celestis formam glorie

At Matins
Hymn. O Sator rerum Reparator evi

August 28: St. Augustine
At First Vespers
1 Ant. Letare mater mea Jerusalem

2 Ant. Hujus mater devotissima

3 Ant. Distulit tamen diu baptismi

4 Ant. Surgens autem post multos

5 Ant. Inventus igitur a custodibus

Ant. Adest dies celebris

At Matins
Invit. Magnus Dominus et laudabilis valde

1 Ant. Aperuit Augustinus codicem

2 Ant. Insinuavit ergo per litteras

3 Ant. At ille jussit Ysayam

1 Resp. Invenit se Augustine

2 Resp. Sensit igitur et expertus est

3 Resp. Tum vero invisibilia Dei

4 Ant. Verumtamen primam

5 Ant. Inde ubi tempus advenit

6 Ant. Nec saciabatur illis diebus

4 Resp. Itaque avidissime legere

5 Resp. Misit ergo Dominus in mentem ejus

6 Resp. Volebat enim conferenti estus suos

7 Ant. Flebat autem uberrime

8 Ant. Voces igitur ille influebat

9 Ant. Adjunctis inde Nebrodio

7 Resp. Vulneraverat caritas Christi

8 Resp. Accepta baptismi gracia

9 Resp. Verbum Dei usque ad ipsam

At Lauds
1 Ant. Post mortem matris

2 Ant. Comperta autem ejus fama

3 Ant. Facta ergo presbiter

4 Ant. Sanctus autem Valerius

5 Ant. Eodem tempore Fortunatus

Ant. In diebus illis obsessa est

At Second Vespers
Ant. Hodie gloriosus pater Augustinus

October 2: Thomas of Hereford

October 21: Eleven Thousand Virgins
At First Vespers
Ant. O quam pulchra est casta

Chapter. Dabo virginibus dicit Dominus

Hymn. Virginis proles opifexque matris

V. Adducentur regi virgines

Ant. Gaudent felices puelle

Prayer. Deus qui sanctam nobis hujus diei

At Matins
Invit. Agnum sponsum virginum

1 Ant. Simile est regnum celorum

2 Ant. Quinque autem ex eis

3 Ant. Prudentes vero acceperunt oleum

V. Adducentur regis virgines

Lessons. Fuit in Britannie finibus

1 Resp. Venerande estis virgines

2 Resp. Quinque prudentes

3 Resp. Feliciter virgines vincunt mundum

4 Ant. Media nocte clamor factus est

5 Ant. Tunc surrexerunt omnes virgines

6 Ant. Responderunt prudentes dicentes

V. Prudentes virgines aptate

4 Resp. Offerentur regi virgines

5 Resp. Simile est regnum celorum decem virginibus

6 Resp. Quinque prudentes virgines

7 Ant. Dum autem irent emere

8 Ant. Novissime vero veniunt

9 Ant. In celis gaudent virgines

V. Offerentur in letitia

7 Resp. Media nocte clamor factus est ecce sponsus advenit

8 Resp. Media nocte clamor factus est ecce sponsus venit

9 Resp. Audivi vocem de celo

Before Lauds
V. Prudentes virgines

At Lauds
1 Ant. Pangamus Deo nostro

2 Ant. Beate estis virgines

3 Ant. Virgines sancte Dei

4 Ant. Rogamus vos virgines

5 Ant. Laus et honor Jesu Christo

Ant. Venerande estis virgines

At Terce
Resp. Adducentur regi virgines

At Sext
Resp. Prudentes virgines

At None
Resp. Offerentur in leticia

At Second Vespers
Ant. Adsit nobis virginum sanctarum

November 6: Saint Leonard
The proper Antiphons, Responsories, and Invitatory all follow a rhyme scheme in which the two phrases (colae) of each line form a rhyme. The metre appears to be organized as lines of 2 feet plus 3 feet (4-7 plus 8-10 syllables). The endings are paroxytonic, although there appear to be exceptions.

At First Vespers
Ant. Amavit eum Dominus
From the Common of one Confessor and Abbot, [816].

Hymn. Gaude fidelis concio
8.8.8.8. The first Melody of ‘Jesu Redemptor omnium’ [797] would seem a fitting choice for this Hymn, particularly in view of the association of the opening melodic motive with the familiar Officium ‘Gaudeamus omnes’ (e.g. St. Thomas Becket, 141).

V. Ora pro nobis beate Leonarde
The common Sarum Verse at First Vespers of Confessors is ‘Amavit eum Dominus et ornavit eum. (‘Ora pro nobis’ normally appears ‘Before Lauds’.) The choice of ‘Ora pro nobis’ may be in order to avoid duplicating the text of the Antiphon on the Psalms.

Ant. Magnificare Deum qui dat

Prayer. Magestati tue quesumus Domine
This Prayer is different from that in the Sarum Sanctorale (Preces nostras quesumus Domine). This Prayer appears in the York and Hereford Missals, and is also found in other traditions (Milan and Prague, for example).

At Matins
Invit. Hec plebs implorat Dominum

Hymn. Leta sancti solempnia
8.8.8.8
The most appropriate Melody for this Hymn would appear to be again the first Melody of ‘Jesu Redemptor omnium’ [797].

1 Ant. Vocibus exultet hec grex

2 Ant. Confessor Christi populo

3 Ant. Vir Leonarde Dei

1 Resp. Christicole cuncti deitas

2 Resp. Nobilium natus ad Christum

3 Resp. Hic invenis factus sancto

4 Ant. Esto memor memorum petimus

5 Ant. Qui pius afflictis

6 Ant. Te collaudantes festum

4 Resp. Princeps Francorum

5 Resp. Dum cupit iste fore

6 Resp. Hic casu ductus

7 Ant. Fit fama morum

8 Ant. Justus pacificus

9 Ant. Nostra creatorem

7 Resp. O trilatorum Pater

8 Resp. Plures captivos

9 Resp. Postquam magnificus

At Lauds
1 Ant. Insignis natu Leonardus

2 Ant. Istum laudemus pronique

3 Ant. Fac nos per vigiles

4 Ant. Confessor Christi plebi

5 Ant. Nos unum Dominum laudemus

Hymn. Salvator mundo medicum
8.8.8.8
Appropriate Melodies for this Hymn might be that proposed for the Hymn at First Vespers (above) [797], or the Melody for ‘Salvator mundi Domine’ [376].

Ant. Summe et invictus

At Second Vespers
Ant. Votis astantum Leonarde

Commemoration of St. Leonard.
Ant. Sis pro nobis sancte Leonarde
This Antiphon is in regular metre and rhyme, 8p7pp, except for the first phrase, which is 10p rather than 8p. This variation is accounted for by the substitution of ‘Leonarde’ for ‘Cedda’. (The Antiphon is adapted from that for First Vespers of St. Chad {349}.

November 20: Saint Edmund, King and Martyr
At First Vespers
Ant. Ave rex gentis Anglorum

V. Gloria et honore

Ant. Exulta sancta ecclesia

At Matins
Invit. Regem regum adoremus

1 Ant. Sanctus Edmundus clarissimis

2 Ant. Cumque inventus adolesceret

3 Ant. Legem dedit rex crudelis

1 Resp. Sancte indolis puer

2 Resp. Egregium decus et salus

3 Resp. Miles Chrsti Edmundus

3 Resp. Exiit edictum crudelis

4 Ant. Ait autem Edmundus

5 Ant. Vinctus ferro lamentabilibus

6 Ant. Quo amplior esset mercedis gloria

4 Resp. Crescit ad penam

5 Resp. Martyri adhuc palpitanti

6 Resp. Defectum ergo de corpore

7 Ant. Misso spiculatore decrevit

8 Ant. O martyr invincibilis

9 Ant. Defectum ergo de corpore

7 Resp. Admirabilis fiunt

8 Resp. Preciosum martyris

9 Resp. O martyr invincibilis

At Lauds
1 Ant. Quidam maligne mentis

2 Ant. Facto autem mane alius

3 Ant. Quidam magne potentie vir

4 Ant. Reserato ergo locello

5 Ant. O martyr magnum meriti

Ant. Gloriosus Dei athleta Edmundus

At Second Vespers
Ant. O sanctissima patris Edmundi